Saturday, June 21, 2008

HUMAN and ANIMAL TSE Classifications i.e. mad cow disease and the UKBSEnvCJD only theory JUNE 2008


I kindly reminder, with additional references. ...

HUMAN and ANIMAL TSE Classifications i.e. mad cow disease and the UKBSEnvCJD only theory JUNE 2008

JUNE 20, 2008

HUMAN and ANIMAL TSE Classifications i.e. mad cow disease and the UKBSEnvCJD only theory

TSEs have been rampant in the USA for decades in many species, and they all have been rendered and fed back to animals for human/animal consumption. I propose that the current diagnostic criteria for human TSEs only enhances and helps the spreading of human TSE from the continued belief of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory in 2007.

With all the science to date refuting it, to continue to validate this myth, will only spread this TSE agent through a multitude of potential routes and sources i.e. consumption, surgical, blood, medical, cosmetics etc. I propose as with Aguzzi, Asante, Collinge, Caughey, Deslys, Dormont, Gibbs, Ironside, Manuelidis, Marsh, et al and many more, that the world of TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy is far from an exact science, but there is enough proven science to date that this myth should be put to rest once and for all, and that we move forward with a new classification for human and animal TSE that would properly identify the infected species, the source species, and then the route.

This would further have to be broken down to strain of species and then the route of transmission would further have to be broken down. Accumulation and Transmission are key to the threshold from sub-clinical to clinical disease, and key to all this, is to stop the amplification and transmission of this agent, the spreading of, no matter what strain. In my opinion, to continue with this myth that the U.K. strain of BSE (one strain TSE in cows), and the nv/v CJD (one strain TSE humans) and that all the rest of human TSE are just one single strain i.e. sporadic CJD (when to date there are 6 different phenotypes of sCJD, and growing per Gambetti et al), and that no other animal TSE transmits to humans, to continue with this masquerade will only continue to spread, expose, and kill, who knows how many more in the years and decades to come. ONE was enough for me, My Mom, hvCJD i.e. Heidenhain Variant CJD, DOD 12/14/97 confirmed, which is nothing more than another mans name added to CJD, like CJD itself, Jakob and Creutzfeldt, or Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, just another CJD or human TSE, named after another human.

WE are only kidding ourselves with the current diagnostic criteria for human and animal TSE, especially differentiating between the nvCJD vs the sporadic CJD strains and then the GSS strains and also the FFI fatal familial insomnia strains or the ones that mimics one or the other of those TSE? Tissue infectivity and strain typing of the many variants of the human and animal TSEs are paramount in all variants of all TSE. There must be a proper classification that will differentiate between all these human TSE in order to do this. With the CDI and other more sensitive testing coming about, I only hope that my proposal will some day be taken seriously. ...

My name is Terry S. Singeltary Sr. and I am no scientist, no doctor and have no PhDs, but have been independently researching human and animal TSEs since the death of my Mother to the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease on December 14, 1997 'confirmed'. ...TSS

Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518

additional new source references and old source references as follows ;


Original Article

A novel human disease with abnormal prion protein sensitive to protease

Pierluigi Gambetti, MD 1 *, Zhiqian Dong, PhD 1, Jue Yuan, BA 1, Xiangzhu Xiao, PhD 1, Mengjie Zheng, PhD 1, Amer Alshekhlee, MD 1, Rudy Castellani, MD 2, Mark Cohen, MD 1, Marcelo A. Barria, PhD 3, D. Gonzalez-Romero, PhD 3, Ermias D. Belay, MD 4, Lawrence B. Schonberger, MD, MPH 4, Karen Marder, MD 5, Carrie Harris, BA 1, James R. Burke, MD, PhD 6, Thomas Montine, MD 7, Thomas Wisniewski, MD 8, Dennis W. Dickson, MD 9, Claudio Soto, PhD 3, Christine M. Hulette, MD 10, James A. Mastrianni, MD, PhD 11, Qingzhong Kong, PhD 1, Wen-Quan Zou, MD, PhD 1 * 1Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 2Department of Pathology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 3Department of Neurology, Neuroscience and Cell Biology, George and Cynthia Mitchell Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 4Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 5Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, NY 6Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, Duke University, Durham, NC 7Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 8Department of Neurology, New York University, New York, NY 9Department of Neuropathology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL 10Department of Pathology, Duke University, Durham, NC 11Department of Neurology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL

email: Pierluigi Gambetti ( Wen-Quan Zou (

*Correspondence to Pierluigi Gambetti, Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2085 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH 44106

*Correspondence to Wen-Quan Zou, Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2085 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH 44106

Funded by: NIH; Grant Number: AG14359, AG08702, NS049173 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Grant Number: CCU 515004 Britton Fund CJD Foundation


Objective To report a novel prion disease characterized by distinct histopathological and immunostaining features, and associated with an abnormal isoform of the prion protein (PrP) that, contrary to the common prion diseases, is predominantly sensitive to protease digestion.

Methods Eleven subjects were investigated at the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center for clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, genotypical, and PrP characteristics.

Results Patients presented with behavioral and psychiatric manifestations on average at 62 years, whereas mean disease duration was 20 months. The type of spongiform degeneration, the PrP immunostaining pattern, and the presence of microplaques distinguished these cases from those with known prion diseases. Typical protease-resistant PrP was undetectable in the cerebral neocortex with standard diagnostic procedures. After enrichment, abnormal PrP was detected at concentrations 16 times lower than common prion diseases; it included nearly 4 times less protease-resistant PrP, which formed a distinct electrophoretic profile. The subjects examined comprised about 3% of sporadic cases evaluated by the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center. Although several subjects had family histories of dementia, no mutations were found in the PrP gene open reading frame.

Interpretation The distinct histopathological, PrP immunohistochemical, and physicochemical features, together with the homogeneous genotype, indicate that this is a previously unidentified type of disease involving the PrP, which we designated protease-sensitive prionopathy (or PSPr). Protease-sensitive prionopathy is not rare among prion diseases, and it may be even more prevalent than our data indicate because protease-sensitive prionopathy cases are likely also to be classified within the group of non-Alzheimer's dementias. Ann Neurol 2008;63:697-708

---------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- Received: 5 November 2007; Revised: 1 April 2008; Accepted: 4 April 2008 Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

10.1002/ana.21420 About DOI

Pages: 677-678 A new prionopathy Robert Will, Mark Head

A novel human disease with abnormal prion protein sensitive to protease (prionopathy)

re-Association between Deposition of Beta-Amyloid and Pathological Prion Protein in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Subject: Sporadic creutzfeldt-jakob disease in two adolescents (see sCJD, the big lie) Date: May 28, 2007 at 7:58 am PST

Please remember, the last two mad cows documented in the USA i.e. Alabama and Texas, both were of the 'atypical' BSE strain, and immediately after that, the USDA shut down the testing from 470,000 to 40,000 in the U.S. in 2007 out of about 35 million cattle slaughtered. also, science is showing that some of these atypical cases are more virulent to humans than the typical UK BSE strain ;

***Atypical forms of BSE have emerged which, although rare, appear to be more virulent than the classical BSE that causes vCJD.***

Progress Report from the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center

An Update from Stephen M. Sergay, MB, BCh & Pierluigi Gambetti, MD

April 3, 2008

In this context, a word is in order about the US testing program. After the discovery of the first (imported) cow in 2003, the magnitude of testing was much increased, reaching a level of >400,000 tests in 2005 (Figure 4). Neither of the 2 more recently indigenously infected older animals with nonspecific clinical features would have been detected without such testing, and neither would have been identified as atypical without confirmatory Western blots. Despite these facts, surveillance has now been decimated to 40,000 annual tests (USDA news release no. 0255.06, July 20, 2006) and invites the accusation that the United States will never know the true status of its involvement with BSE.

In short, a great deal of further work will need to be done before the phenotypic features and prevalence of atypical BSE are understood. More than a single strain may have been present from the beginning of the epidemic, but this possibility has been overlooked by virtue of the absence of widespread Western blot confirmatory testing of positive screening test results; or these new phenotypes may be found, at least in part, to result from infections at an older age by a typical BSE agent, rather than neonatal infections with new "strains" of BSE. Neither alternative has yet been investigated.

IF BSE is not in the USA (just not documented for many different reasons), and only atypical BSE is in the USA (plus CWD, plus, many strains of Scrapie, and Now the Nor-98 documented in 5 different states, plus TME, then why would human mad cow in the USA look like the UK nvCJD from UK BSE cows ? it was shown long ago in studies at Mission Texas that experimental transmission of USA Scrapie to USA Bovine, DID NOT LOOK LIKE UK BSE. so again, in short, why would human mad cow in the USA look like human mad cow in the UK i.e. the (nvCJD). however, I believe that BSE has been in the USA untested and undocumented for years. why on earth then does the USDA refuse to allow creekstone or anyone else test their product? simple, if you don't look/test, you don't find.


please see full text ;

3.57 The experiment which might have determined whether BSE and scrapie were caused by the same agent (ie, the feeding of natural scrapie to cattle) was never undertaken in the UK. It was, however, performed in the USA in 1979, when it was shown that cattle inoculated with the scrapie agent endemic in the flock of Suffolk sheep at the United States Department of Agriculture in Mission, Texas, developed a TSE quite unlike BSE.339 The findings of the initial transmission, though not of the clinical or neurohistological examination, were communicated in October 1988 to Dr Watson, Director of the CVL, following a visit by Dr Wrathall, one of the project leaders in the Pathology Department of the CVL, to the United States Department of Agriculture.340 The results were not published at this point, since the attempted transmission to mice from the experimental cow brain had been inconclusive. The results of the clinical and histological differences between scrapie-affected sheep and cattle were published in 1995. Similar studies in which cattle were inoculated intracerebrally with scrapie inocula derived from a number of scrapie-affected sheep of different breeds and from different States, were carried out at the US National Animal Disease Centre.341 The results, published in 1994, showed that this source of scrapie agent, though pathogenic for cattle,

*** did not produce the same clinical signs of brain lesions characteristic of BSE. ***

3.58 There are several possible reasons why the experiment was not performed in the UK. It had been recommended by Sir Richard Southwood (Chairman of the Working Party on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) in his letter to the Permanent Secretary of MAFF, Mr (now Sir) Derek Andrews, on 21 June 1988,342 though it was not specifically recommended in the Working Party Report or indeed in the Tyrrell Committee Report (details of the Southwood Working Party and the Tyrell Committee can be found in vol. 4: The Southwood Working Party, 1988–89 and vol. 11: Scientists after Southwood respectively). The direct inoculation of scrapie into calves was given low priority, because of its high cost and because it was known that it had already taken place in the USA.343 It was also felt that the results of such an experiment would be hard to interpret. While a negative result 337 Fraser, H., Bruce, M., Chree, A., McConnell, I. and Wells, G. (1992) Transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie to Mice, Journal of General Virology, 73, 1891–7; Bruce, M., Chree, A., McConnell, I., Foster, J., Pearson, G. and Fraser, H. (1994) Transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie to Mice: Strain Variation and the Species Barrier, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 343, 405–11 338 Bruce, M., Will, R., Ironside, J., McConell, I., Drummond, D., Suttie, A., McCordie, L., Chree, A., Hope, J., Birkett, C., Cousens, S., Fraser, H. and Bostock, C. (1997) Transmissions to Mice Indicate that ‘New Variant’ CJD is Caused by the BSE Agent, Nature, 389, 498–501 339 Clark, W., Hourrigan, J. and Hadlow, W. (1995) Encephalopathy in Cattle Experimentally Infected with the Scrapie Agent, American Journal of Veterinary Research, 56, 606–12 340 YB88/10.00/1.1 341 Cutlip, R., Miller, J., Race, R., Jenny, A., Katz, J., Lehmkuhl, H., Debey, B. and Robinson, M. (1994) Intracerebral Transmission of Scrapie to Cattle, Journal of Infectious Diseases, 169, 814–20 342 YB88/6.21/1.2 343 YB88/11.17/2.4 SCIENCE 84 would be informative, a positive result would need to demonstrate that when scrapie was transmitted to cattle, the disease which developed in cattle was the same as BSE.344 Given the large number of strains of scrapie and the possibility that BSE was one of them, it would be necessary to transmit every scrapie strain to cattle separately, to test the hypothesis properly. Such an experiment would be expensive. Secondly, as measures to control the epidemic took hold, the need for the experiment from the policy viewpoint was not considered so urgent. It was felt that the results would be mainly of academic interest.345 3.59 Nevertheless, from the first demonstration of transmissibility of BSE in 1988, the possibility of differences in the transmission properties of BSE and scrapie was clear. Scrapie was transmissible to hamsters, but by 1988 attempts to transmit BSE to hamsters had failed. Subsequent findings increased that possibility.

NEW SOLUTIONS: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy

Issue: Volume 18, Number 2 / 2008 Pages: 145 - 156 URL: Linking Options

Mad Cows and Computer Models: The U.S. Response to BSE

Frank Ackerman and Wendy A. Johnecheck


The proportion of slaughtered cattle tested for BSE is much smaller in the U.S. than in Europe and Japan, leaving the U.S. heavily dependent on statistical models to estimate both the current prevalence and the spread of BSE. We examine the models relied on by USDA, finding that the prevalence model provides only a rough estimate, due to limited data availability. Reassuring forecasts from the model of the spread of BSE depend on the arbitrary constraint that worst-case values are assumed by only one of 17 key parameters at a time. In three of the six published scenarios with multiple worst-case parameter values, there is at least a 25% probability that BSE will spread rapidly. In public policy terms, reliance on potentially flawed models can be seen as a gamble that no serious BSE outbreak will occur. Statistical modeling at this level of abstraction, with its myriad, compound uncertainties, is no substitute for precautionary policies to protect public health against the threat of epidemics such as BSE.,5,18;journal,1,41;linkingpublicationresults,1:300327,1

snip... please see full text ;

Thursday, June 05, 2008

Review on the epidemiology and dynamics of BSE epidemics

Vet. Res. (2008) 39:15 DOI: 10.1051/vetres:2007053 c INRA, EDP Sciences, 2008 Review article


And last but not least, similarities of PrPres between Htype BSE and human prion diseases like CJD or GSS have been put forward [10], as well as between L-type BSE and CJD [17]. These findings raise questions about the origin and inter species transmission of these prion diseases that were discovered through the BSE active surveillance.

full text 18 pages ;

please see full text ;

Sunday, March 16, 2008 MAD COW DISEASE terminology UK c-BSE (typical), atypical BSE H or L, and or Italian L-BASE March 16, 2008

Tuesday, June 17, 2008

Portsmouth woman did not die of mad cow-related condition, USDA says UPDATE Updated Jun.17, 2008 08:34 KST

The statistical incidence of CJD cases in the United States has been revised to reflect that there is one case per 9000 in adults age 55 and older. Eighty-five percent of the cases are sporadic, meaning there is no known cause at present.

see full text ;

CJD TEXAS (cjd clusters)


U.S. slams door on revising S. Korea beef import pact

June 11, 2008, 10:14PM

Wednesday, June 11, 2008

OIE Recognition of the BSE Status of Members RESOLUTION No. XXI (Adopted by the International Committee of the OIE on 27 May 2008)

Saturday, June 7, 2008

Export Requirements for the Republic of Korea IMPORT HEALTH REQUIREMENTS FOR U.S. BEEF AND BEEF PRODUCTS

Why Americans, As Well as Koreans, Should Be Worried About Mad Cow Tainted USA Beef

By Terry S. Singeltary Sr. May 15, 2008

Straight to the Source

Web Note: This is an important commentary by Terry S. Singeltary Sr., on a recent Business Week story on the controversy in South Korea over their government's lifting on the ban on conventional (non-organic) beef, despite the fact that the USDA is still allowing slaughterhouse waste and blood and manure to be fed to cows, and refusing to test all cows at slaughter. See the Mad Cow section of the OCA website for in-depth information. Terry is a regular blogger on the OCA website on Mad Cow issues.

Ronnie Cummins

One Korean official says the probability of a human being catching a mad cow disease by eating U.S. beef is like the one of a golf player scoring a hole-in-one and then being killed by lightning.

this is typical BSe. you here industry groups comment 'your more likely to get hit by a car than die from CJD'. well, maybe so, but my mother and many more did not die from getting hit by a car, they died from CJD, my mothers being the hvCJD (confirmed), and my neighbors mother died from CJD (confirmed). the UKBSEnvCJD _only_ theory is incorrect. there are more strains of mad cow than the UK BSE in beef to nvCJD in humans in the UK. The deception by the USDA, FDA, and the Bush administration about mad cow disease, CJD, and all Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy over the past 8 years have been outrageous, to a point of being criminal. I am vested in nothing, but the truth.

snip...see full text ;

Tuesday, May 13, 2008

Concerned Americans against Mad Cow Disease STATEMENT OF SOLIDARITY with Koreans May 13, 2008



Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (Variant) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Prion Diseases) Description Since 1996, strong evidence has accumulated for a causal relationship between ongoing outbreaks, primarily in Europe, of a disease in cattle called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) and a disease in humans called variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Both disorders, which are caused by an unconventional transmissible agent, are invariably fatal brain diseases with incubation periods typically measured in years (1). Transmission of the BSE agent to humans, leading to vCJD, is believed to occur via ingestion of cattle products contaminated with the BSE agent; the specific foods associated with this transmission are unknown. However, a recently published case-control study involving 132 vCJD cases in the United Kingdom (UK) showed evidence of an increased risk for vCJD associated with the frequency of consuming beef products likely to contain mechanically recovered meat and head meat (such as burgers, meat pies, and sausages) (2). Bioassays and molecular tests have enabled identification of what World Health Organization consultants have classified as “high-infectivity” and “lower infectivity” tissues of cattle with BSE (3). The high-infectivity tissues include the brain, spinal cord, retina, optic nerve, and dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, suggesting that these tissues can pose a relatively high risk of transmission. The lower infectivity tissues include peripheral nerves (e.g., sciatic and facial nerves), tonsils, nictitating membrane (third eye lid), distal ileum, bone marrow, and possibly thigh muscle. The latter tissue from one cow with BSE transmitted disease to highly BSE-sensitive transgenic mice at a rate indicative of trace levels of infectivity.

Thursday, February 21, 2008

TRANSCRIPT: Technical Briefing - Hallmark/Westland Meat Packing Company - (02/21/08)

Release No. 0054.08


Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME. Since previous incidences of TME were associated with common or shared feeding practices, we obtained a careful history of feed ingredients used over the past 12-18 months. The rancher was a "dead stock" feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle and a few horses. Sheep had never been fed.

[Docket No. 03-025IFA] FSIS Prohibition of the Use of Specified Risk Materials for Human Food and Requirement for the Disposition of Non-Ambulatory Disabled Cattle


Tuesday, June 3, 2008


NOT to forget the 5 cases of the NOR-98 atypical scrapie documented in the USA in 2007, in five different states. WHICH pathologically looks like some sub-types of sporadic CJD, of which Stanely Prusiner warns of a public health risk ;

***The pathology features of Nor98 in the cerebellum of the affected sheep showed similarities with those of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.

Here we report that both Nor98 and discordant cases, including three sheep homozygous for the resistant PrPARR allele (A136R154R171), efficiently transmitted the disease to transgenic mice expressing ovine PrP, and that they shared unique biological and biochemical features upon propagation in mice. These observations support the view that a truly infectious TSE agent, unrecognized until recently, infects sheep and goat flocks and may have important implications in terms of scrapie control and public health.

Edited by Stanley B. Prusiner, University of California, San Francisco, CA, and approved September 12, 2005 (received for review March 21, 2005)

In FY 2007, 331 scrapie cases have been confirmed and reported by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), including 59* Regulatory Scrapie Slaughter Surveillance (RSSS) cases (Figure 5 and Slide 16). In FY 2007, two field cases, one validation case, and two RSSS cases were consistent with Nor-98 scrapie. The Nor98-like cases originated from flocks in California, Minnesota, Colorado, Wyoming and Indiana respectively. Nineteen cases of scrapie in goats have been reported since 1990 (Figure 6). The last goat case was reported in September 2007.


see full report here ;

Thursday, April 24, 2008


Chronic Wasting Disease

8. Human susceptibility to CWD

Millions of North Americans hunt deer and elk (U.S. Department of the Interior, Census Bureau), and there is no doubt that people have been exposed to CWD through venison consumption, particularly in light of recent data showing CWD prions in muscle [2]. Human susceptibility to CWD or to other newly emerging animal TSE [9, 14] is still unclear, although we can be somewhat reassured in that there have been no large scale outbreaks of human TSE cases in Colorado and Wyoming, where CWD has existed for decades [51]. Up until approximately 10 years ago, autopsies were not performed on suspect human TSE cases in many states due to biosafety concerns, therefore the diagnosis of potential new TSE strains has been hampered. This indicates that clinical TSE diagnoses in humans were not confirmed, nor was any strain typing done to look for the appearance of potentially subtle or unusual pathological or biochemical phenotypes of a new TSE strain. Fortunately, the autopsy rate for suspect cases is improving. At the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center at Case Western Reserve University (Cleveland, Ohio), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) suspect cases are studied and classified by CJD subtype. Thus far,


*** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,

however there have been no unusual or novel prion subtypes that might indicate the appearance of a new prion strain [7, 41]. Other indirect studies of human susceptibility to CWD also suggest that the risk is low. In biochemical conversion studies, Raymond et al. [68] showed that the efficiency of CWD to convert recombinant human PrP into amyloid fibrils was low, but similar to that of both BSE and scrapie fibrils to do the same. These results suggest that there is a molecular incompatibility in the conversion of human PrPC by CWD, sheep scrapie, or BSE, and that cross species infections in humans may be rare events. To determine whether common PrPSc strain features may link CWD and CJD, histopathology and the PrPSc biochemical characteristics from deer and elk were compared with that of humans with sporadic CJD (sCJD) cases that are methionine homozygous at codon 129 of the Prnp gene by Xie et al. [96], although strain features including histologic profile, target organs, and glycoform patterns will not necessarily remain the same upon crossing species barriers [6, 5, 8, 57]. The PrPSc form is cleaved by proteinase-K (PK) at different sites depending on the conformation of the protein and may aid determination of whether the PrPSc conformation is similar. By western blot (SDS-PAGE) of elk CWD, the unglycosylated PK-resistant PrPSc migrated at 21 kDa, similar to sCJD (MM1 subtype) and the PK cleavage site was the same, occurring at residues 78 and 82 as assessed by N-terminal sequencing. Conformational stability was evaluated by measuring the PrPSc stability under partially denaturing conditions and also showed no significant difference between elk CWD and sCJD MM1 PrPSc. However, elk CWD and human sCJD MM1 strains exhibited distinct glycoform patterns by two dimensional gel electrophoresis, suggesting that the strains differed. Future studies may utilize luminescent conjugated polymers, which were recently shown to distinguish naturally- and experimentally-derived prion strains [79]. To study elk-human prion species barriers, Kong et al. inoculated elk CWD into transgenic mice expressing either human PrP or elk PrP. Whereas the elk PrP expressing mice developed disease after only 118-142 days post-inoculation, human PrP expressing mice (129M) did not develop any features of TSE after more than 657 or more than 756 days [41]. In accordance with these results, Tamgüney et al. also reported that human PrP overexpressing mice were not susceptible to 9 CWD isolates from mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk [84]. However, mice have a limited lifespan and further passages may be necessary to detect low levels of prion infectivity that may be present subclinically. Although indi rect evidence is accumulating that there may be a robust species barrier for CWD transmission to humans, one report indicates nonhuman primate susceptibility to CWD. Intracerebral inoculation of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) demonstrated a positive CWD transmission [49]. Among non-human primates, however, the Prnp sequence of the new world monkeys are the most distant from humans [72], and therefore may not indicate that human prion conversion would occur by CWD.


11. Disease control challenges posed by CWD

Evidence is building that indicates efficient horizontal transmission occurs in CWD, indeed a complicating aspect in disease control [91]. Potential transmission mechanisms range from spread via direct contact among animals to environmental exposure through grazing in areas contaminated by prion-infected secretions, excretions (saliva, urine, feces), tissues (placenta), or decomposed carcasses. Recently, in a breakthrough finding, saliva from CWD infected deer was shown to transmit prion disease [50]. An additional experiment by Miller and colleagues showed that CWD-infected carcasses allowed to decay naturally in confined pastures can lead to CWD infections in captive deer, demonstrating the potential for environmental contamination to spread infection [55]. Modelling studies have provided further


support that environmental contamination is likely playing a significant role in transmitting CWD [56, 53]. Additionally, infectious prions have been demonstrated to bind soil particles and remain infectious to animals by both intracerebral and oral exposure routes [38, 37]. Prion infectivity has been recovered from soil more than two years after experimental exposure to prions, suggesting the soil may serve as a reservoir for CWD prions [75]. Taken together, these results indicate that there may even be multiple sources for CWD exposure, perhaps through direct contact and environmental routes. Significant challenges to CWD eradication exist in free-ranging cervids. Infected deer and elk range over a broad geographic region, and even previously surmised geographic barriers such as the Continental Divide have proven passable by infected animals. Ridding the environment of CWD-contaminated soil or even CWD-infected carcasses is not possible. Moreover, the available ante-mortem diagnostic tests for surveillance are laborious and impractical for large numbers of free-ranging animals [74, 88, 95]. Therefore for a wildlife manager, this disease is costly to survey and difficult to control.

12. Conclusion

CWD in cervids is efficiently transmitted, likely more than any other TSE in animals or humans. Therefore, it is unlikely that this TSE can be eradicated, but perhaps through an improved understanding of transmission routes, biological factors influencing pathogenesis, and the molecular basis of CWD prion conversion, a targeted strategy for interrupting disease spread may be developed.


I thank Drs. Michael Miller, Jason Bartz and Mathias Heikenwalder for critical review of the manuscript.

snip...see full text 19 pages ;



Wednesday, April 23, 2008

FDA Strengthens Safeguards for Consumers of Beef Issues Regulation on Animal Feeds with Added Safeguards Against BSE


----- Original Message -----

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." To: "Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy" Cc:;;;;;;;;

Sent: Monday, April 28, 2008 9:48 PM

Subject: Interference at the EPA Science and Politics at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Reports and Research

Interference at the EPA

Science and Politics at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the simple yet profound charge "to protect human health and the environment." EPA scientists apply their expertise to protect the public from air and water pollution, clean up hazardous waste, and study emerging threats such as global warming. Because each year brings new and potentially toxic chemicals into our homes and workplaces, because air pollution still threatens our public health, and because environmental challenges are becoming more complex and global, a strong and capable EPA is more important than ever.

Yet challenges from industry lobbyists and some political leaders to the agency's decisions have too often led to the suppression and distortion of the scientific findings underlying those decisions—to the detriment of both science and the health of our nation. While every regulatory agency must balance scientific findings with other considerations, policy makers need access to the highest-quality scientific information to make fully informed decisions.

Concern over this problem led the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) to investigate political interference in science at the EPA. The investigation combines dozens of interviews with current and former EPA staff, analysis of government documents, more than 1,600 responses to a survey sent to current EPA scientists, and written comments from EPA scientists.

The results of these investigations show an agency under siege from political pressures. On numerous issues—ranging from mercury pollution to groundwater contamination to climate change—political appointees have edited scientific documents, manipulated scientific assessments, and generally sought to undermine the science behind dozens of EPA regulations. ...

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White House invokes executive privilege in EPA inquiry The Bush administration refuses to turn over subpoenaed documents related to the agency's decision to prevent California from enacting stricter emissions standards than the federal government. By Richard Simon, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer June 21, 2008 WASHINGTON -- Escalating a fight with Democrats on Capitol Hill, the White House on Friday invoked executive privilege in refusing to turn over documents to a congressional committee investigating the Environmental Protection Agency's decision to deny California permission to implement its own vehicle emission standards.

The Bush administration asserted executive privilege hours before the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee was to vote on whether to bring contempt-of-Congress proceedings against EPA Administrator Stephen L. Johnson and Susan Dudley, administrator of regulatory affairs in the White House Office of Management and Budget, for refusing to turn over subpoenaed documents.

Committee Chairman Henry A. Waxman (D-Beverly Hills) put off a vote on the contempt resolutions while he considers his options.

"I don't think we've had a situation like this since Richard Nixon was president," he said, appearing determined to press ahead, even if it leads to a court fight. "We don't know whether this privilege that's being asserted is valid or not."

Presidents since George Washington have claimed rights to executive branch confidentiality, according to the nonpartisan Congressional Research Service. The Bush White House invoked executive privilege to prevent officials from testifying about the dismissal of nine U.S. attorneys in 2006. President Clinton cited presidential privilege during investigations into the Monica Lewinsky scandal and on other issues.

House and Senate committees have been investigating what role the White House played in EPA decisions preventing California and other states from enacting tougher emissions rules than the federal government and in the EPA's approval of new ozone pollution standards.

The administration's claim of executive privilege is the latest twist in the escalating legal and political battle over California's efforts to implement its own law combating global warming. Critics of the EPA decision contend that it was based on politics, not science or the law.

As Waxman considered his next move in his fight with the White House, another House committee in the room next door grilled former Bush Press Secretary Scott McClellan, who wrote a revealing book about his days in the White House. The hearings were a sign of determination by Democrats not to ease up on their oversight activities, even in the final months of the Bush administration.

In asserting executive privilege in the EPA inquiry, the administration made public a copy of a letter sent to the president by Atty. Gen. Michael B. Mukasey saying that releasing internal documents "could inhibit the candor of future deliberations among the president's staff."

EPA spokesman Tim Lyons said the agency had provided the committee with more than 7,000 documents and devoted 2,200 hours of staff time to responding to requests for information, and he called it "disappointing" that the committee had decided to "politicize environmental regulations."

Jim Nussle, director of the Office of Management and Budget, took issue with Waxman's "sudden and unwarranted" move to consider contempt proceedings, noting that Dudley had appeared before Waxman's committee last month and was asked "only four questions" -- and only one by the panel chairman.

"There is no valid reason for moving from mutual cooperation to unilateral confrontation," Nussle wrote Waxman.

Waxman said: "I am very disappointed and disturbed that the administration is keeping this information from us, and I think we have a right to it.",0,1939720.story

Wednesday, April 30, 2008 Consumption of beef tongue: Human BSE risk associated with exposure to lymphoid tissue in bovine tongue in consideration of new research findings


2006 was a banner year too for mad cow protein. those were just one of many

Specified Risk Materials

Thu Dec 6, 2007 11:38





Sunday, May 18, 2008 BSE, CJD, and Baby foods (the great debate 1999 to 2005)



Research Project: Transmission, Differentiation, and Pathobiology of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Location: Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock

Title: Pathobiology and diagnosis of animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: current knowledge, research gaps, and opportunities


Kehrli, Marcus O`rourke, Katherine Hamir, Amirali Richt, Juergen Nicholson, Eric Silva, Christopher Edelman, Daniel - FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRAT Gay, Cyril

Submitted to: Government Publication/Report Publication Type: Government Publication Publication Acceptance Date: May 1, 2007 Publication Date: July 1, 2007

Citation: Kehrli, Jr., M.E., O'Rourke, K.I., Hamir, A.N., Richt, J.A., Nicholson, E.M., Silva, C.J., Edelman, D., Gay, C.G. 2007.

Pathobiology and diagnosis of animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: current knowledge, research gaps, and opportunities [government white paper]. Beltsville, MD: Interagency Working Group on Prion Science, Subcommittee on Pathobiology and Diagnostics. USDA, Agriculture Research Service. 33 p.

Technical Abstract:

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurologic diseases that can affect several animal species and human beings. There are four animal TSE agents found in the United States: scrapie of sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose; transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Although the animal TSEs do not cause major death losses among US livestock populations, they are important because of international trade issues. The experience of the United Kingdom and Europe in dealing with the vast majority of the world's BSE cases, serves as a reminder of the need for continuing vigilance in monitoring risks for public health and research to answer remaining questions around the pathogenesis and transmission of these diseases. There remain questions on 1) cross-species transmissibility of TSEs in livestock and wildlife; 2) the pathobiology of TSEs in natural and secondary hosts; pathogenesis and transmission of CWD; and 4) pathogenesis and ante mortem detection of typical and atypical BSE. Our understanding of the pathogenesis and transmission of these diseases continues to evolve as ongoing, global TSE research efforts focus on defining tissue sites of abnormal prion accumulation, routes of infection, methods of strain differentiation, genetics of susceptibility and ante-mortem diagnostics. In this paper, a Subcommittee on Pathobiology and Diagnostics of TSEs for an Interagency Working Group on Prion Science summarizes the science of animal TSEs in order to identify knowledge gaps for the purpose of prioritizing animal prion research needs. Because of substantial losses involving international trade and potential risk for interspecies transmission to susceptible livestock and possibly humans, the presence of BSE, CWD, scrapie and TME in the United States presents a liability to U.S. domestic and alternative livestock industries. In addition, the proven risk of BSE to agriculture and public health from subclinical or clinically sick animals requires science-based surveillance for any silent, unrecognized epizootic expansions of these diseases in populations of animals that could either directly or indirectly affect food animals. CWD is an example of an uncontrolled expanding epidemic that threatens not only cervids but possibly other livestock. CWD also has elicited public health surveillance programs to monitor for scientific evidence of a prion disease in humans that consume venison. Therefore, some of the research needs are precautionary, but the risks to animal and human health from being caught unaware are high. Efforts are being made by both federal and state regulatory agencies to eradicate scrapie and CWD, and to determine the prevalence of BSE. The effectiveness of these programs will depend heavily on having accurate information about the nature of these diseases, not only in the original hosts, but also in other species that may be in contact with infected animals.


18 January 2007 - Draft minutes of the SEAC 95 meeting (426 KB) held on 7 December 2006 are now available.


64. A member noted that at the recent Neuroprion meeting, a study was presented showing that in transgenic mice BSE passaged in sheep may be more virulent and infectious to a wider range of species than bovine derived BSE.

Other work presented suggested that BSE and bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE) MAY BE RELATED. A mutation had been identified in the prion protein gene in an AMERICAN BASE CASE THAT WAS SIMILAR IN NATURE TO A MUTATION FOUND IN CASES OF SPORADIC CJD.


3:30 Transmission of the Italian Atypical BSE (BASE) in Humanized Mouse

Models Qingzhong Kong, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Pathology, Case Western Reserve University

Bovine Amyloid Spongiform Encephalopathy (BASE) is an atypical BSE strain discovered recently in Italy, and similar or different atypical BSE cases were also reported in other countries. The infectivity and phenotypes of these atypical BSE strains in humans are unknown. In collaboration with Pierluigi Gambetti, as well as Maria Caramelli and her co-workers, we have inoculated transgenic mice expressing human prion protein with brain homogenates from BASE or BSE infected cattle. Our data shows that about half of the BASE-inoculated mice became infected with an average incubation time of about 19 months; in contrast, none of the BSE-inoculated mice appear to be infected after more than 2 years.

***These results indicate that BASE is transmissible to humans and suggest that BASE is more virulent than classical BSE in humans.***

6:30 Close of Day One

[In submitting these data, Terry S. Singeltary Sr. draws attention to the steady increase in the "type unknown" category, which, according to their definition, comprises cases in which vCJD could be excluded. The total of 26 cases for the current year (2007) is disturbing, possibly symptomatic of the circulation of novel agents. Characterization of these agents should be given a high priority. - Mod.CP],F2400_P1001_PUB_MAIL_ID:1010,39963

There is a growing number of human CJD cases, and they were presented last week in San Francisco by Luigi Gambatti(?) from his CJD surveillance collection.

He estimates that it may be up to 14 or 15 persons which display selectively SPRPSC and practically no detected RPRPSC proteins.

If, on the other hand, atypical BSE continues to occur as typical BSE disappears, this would be a strong indication that it is indeed sporadic, and if in addition at least 1 form of what is presently considered as sporadic CJD (such as the type 2 M/V subtype shown to have a Western blot signature like BASE) were to increase, this would suggest (although not prove) a causal relationship (Figure 5).

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Mortality in Japan, 1979-2004: Analysis of National Death Certificate Data

Yuriko Doi1), Tetsuji Yokoyama2), Miyoshi Sakai2) and Yosikazu Nakamura3)

1) Department of Epidemiology, National Institute of Public Health. 2) Department of Technology Assessment and Biostatistics, National Institute of Public Health. 3) Department of Public Health, Jichi Medical University.

(Received: September 13, 2006) (Accepted: March 18, 2007)

Abstract BACKGROUND: Trend of the mortality rate of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in Japan is still unclear. This study aimed to estimate annual crude mortality rates due to CJD and examine the CJD mortality trend in Japan during the period of 1979-2004. METHODS: National death certificate data on CJD were used (CJD coded as 046.1 for ICD-9 and A81.0 for ICD-10). Trends in age-standardized mortality rates for CJD were examined by using time series analyses including the joinpoint regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1,966 deaths (862 males and 1,104 females) were identified with CJD coded as the underlying-cause-of-death. The annual number of deaths and crude mortality rates peaked in 2004 at 163 (66 for males and 97 for females) deaths and 1.28 (1.06 for males and 1.48 for females) deaths per million population per year, respectively. The age-specific mortality rates rapidly increased with age between 50 and 74 years, especially among females, and sharply declined at 80+ years. Throughout the observed period, there were no significant change points, and the annual percentage changes (95% confidence intervals) were +3.09 (2.18 - 4.02) % for males and +3.90 (2.98-4.83) % and females. The total number of CJD deaths under 50 years of age was 131, and there was found no increase in the annual number of deaths for the past few years in this age group. CONCLUSION: CJD mortality in trend data based on death certificates has significantly increased in Japan during the period of 1979-2004. J Epidemiol 2007; 17: 133-139.

Key words: Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome; Regression Analysis; Mortality; Death Certificate; Japan


AS demonstrated in this study, we found a significant linear increase in trends for age standardized mortality rates from the disease, with +3-4% of annual percentage change, between 1979 and 2004. In interpreting the results, we should consider some factors that might contribute to a false increase in mortality, such as the change of ICD codes and the enhancement of case findings (e.g., physicians9 recognition of the disease, diagnostic tests, and quality of health care). No revolutionary new diagnostic test for CJD became available throughout the observational period. On the other hand, there were a few critical points of time to consider: in 1991, patients with CJD transmitted by cadaveric dura transplants were identified in Japan9, in 1995, the ICD code for CJD was changed from 9th to 10th version in Japan; and in 1996, a new case of vCJD causally linked to BSE was reported from the United Kingdom.6 Without an abrupt rise of age-standardized mortality rates from CJD after these years for both sexes, however, it is unlikely that these events artificially affected the increase in CJD mortality.

Rather, it may be the true fact that in Japan our results reflect to a large extent a genuine increase in CJD. The number of iCJD cases may still increase even after the total ban on the practice of causal grafts.5,8 Regarding sporadic CJD (sCJD), a recent report from the European Unions collective study on CJD suggests that the mortality rates from sCJD increased with time between 1993 and 2002.20 It is quite probable that this temporal increase of sCJD may also exist in Japan. The increase may have been accompanied to some extent by the improvement of physicians diagnostic skills for CJD since 1997 when a manual for clinical practice on CJD was introduced in our country.20,21

sporadic cjd

Colorado Surveillance Program for Chronic Wasting Disease Transmission to Humans (TWO SUSPECT CASES)

An evaluation of scrapie surveillance in the United States From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Date: Sun, 5 Aug 2007 13:05

SEAC New forms of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy 1 August 2007 From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Date: Sun, 5 Aug 2007 13:09:38 -0500

Owens, Julie From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. [] Sent: Monday, July 24, 2006 1:09 PM To: FSIS RegulationsComments Subject: [Docket No. FSIS-2006-0011] FSIS Harvard Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Page 1 of 98 8/3/2006

Greetings FSIS,

I would kindly like to comment on the following ;

[Federal Register: July 12, 2006 (Volume 71, Number 133)] [Notices] [Page 39282-39283] From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [] [DOCID:fr12jy06-35] ----------------------------------------------------------------------- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service [Docket No. FSIS-2006-0011] Harvard Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Update; Notice of Availability and Technical Meeting


MY comments/questions are as follows ;

1. SINCE the first Harvard BSE Risk Assessment was so flawed and fraught with error after the PEER REVIEW assessment assessed this fact, how do you plan on stopping this from happening again, will there be another peer review with top TSE Scientist, an impartial jury so-to-speak, to assess this new and updated Harvard BSE/TSE risk assessment and will this assessment include the Atypical TSE and SRM issues ?

*** Suppressed peer review of Harvard study October 31, 2002 ***

2. WITH A RECENT NATION WIDE MAD COW FEED BAN RECALL in the past few months that consisted of some 10,878.06 TONS, then another Mad Cow feed ban warning letter in May, IT should seem prudent to ask why our feed bans continue to fail in 2006, and continue to fail today ?


full text 98 pages ;

[Docket No. 03-025IFA] FSIS Prohibition of the Use of Specified Risk Materials for Human Food and Requirement for the Disposition of Non-Ambulatory Disabled Cattle

03-025IFA 03-025IFA-2 Terry S. Singeltary

Page 1 of 17

From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. []

Sent: Thursday, September 08, 2005 6:17 PM


Subject: [Docket No. 03-025IFA] FSIS Prohibition of the Use of Specified Risk Materials for Human Food and Requirements for the Disposition of Non-Ambulatory Disabled Cattle

Greetings FSIS,

I would kindly like to submit the following to [Docket No. 03-025IFA] FSIS Prohibition of the Use of Specified Risk Materials for Human Food and Requirements for the Disposition of Non-Ambulatory Disabled Cattle THE BSE/TSE SUB CLINICAL Non-Ambulatory Disabled Cattle Broken bones and such may be the first signs of a sub clinical BSE/TSE Non-Ambulatory Disabled Cattle ;



Issued: Monday, 28 August 2000



A team of researchers led by Professor John Collinge at the Medical

Research Council Prion Unit1 report today in the Proceedings of the

National Academy of Sciences, on new evidence for the existence of a

"sub-clinical" form of BSE in mice which was unknown until now....

full text 17 pages ;

Docket No, 04-047-l Regulatory Identification No. (RIN) 091O-AF46 NEW BSE SAFEGUARDS


No. 04-047-l

No. 04-021ANPR

No. 2004N-0264


Federal Measures to Mitigate BSE Risks: Considerations for Further Action

Greetings FDA, USDA and APHIS et al,

I would kindly like to comment on the continued delay of the regulations that have been proposed for years to reduce the risk of BSE/TSE in the USA. Each day that is wasted debating this issue allows this agent to spread, and many many more humans and animals become needlessly exposed to this agent via a multitude of potential routes and sources right here in the USA. TO continue to ignore the new findings from several scientists about the fact that BSE is not the only strain of TSE in cattle, the fact that new atypical strains of TSE are showing up in not only cattle, but sheep and the fact that the new strain of TSE in cattle seems to be more similar to sporadic CJD as opposed to the nv/v CJD, to continue to ignore these findings will only further spread this agent. ..............

full text ;

Docket Management Docket: 02N-0273 - Substances Prohibited From Use in

Animal Food or Feed; Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant Feed

Comment Number: EC -10

Accepted - Volume 2


2003D-0186 Guidance for Industry: Use of Material From Deer and Elk In Animal Feed

EMC 7 Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Vol #: 1

Docket Management Docket: 02N-0276 - Bioterrorism Preparedness ... General Comments, Subject: Docket No: 02-088-1 RE-Agricultural ... From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.


Docket No: 02-088-1 Title: ...

Greetings FDA and public,

if you go to the below site, and search all BSE known countries and check out their air traffic illegal meat they have confiscated, and check out the low number checked, compared to actual passenger traffic, would not take too much for some nut to bring in FMD/TSEs into the USA as a 'suitcase bomb'.

[[Under APHIS-PPQ's agricultural quarantine inspection monitoring, 284 air passengers from Israel were sampled for items of agricultural interest in fiscal year 2001. Seven of these passengers, or 2 percent, carried a total of 11 kg of meat items that could potentially harbor the pathogen that causes BSE. None of these passengers from whom meat items were confiscated reported plans to visit or work on a ranch or farm during their visit to the U.S.]]

if they were to have questioned the terrorist that bombed the Twin Towers with jets, if they were to have questioned them at flight school in the USA, i am sure that they would have said they did not intend to visit the Twin Towers as a flying bomb either. what am i thinking, they probably did ask this? stupid me. ...

full text ;


File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat -

Page 1. J Freas, William From: Sent: To: Subject: Terry S. Singeltary

Sr. [] Monday, January 08, 200l 3:03 PM freas ...

Greetings again Dr. Freas and Committee Members,

I wish to submit the following information to the Scientific Advisors and Consultants Staff 2001 Advisory Committee (short version).

I understand the reason of having to shorten my submission, but only hope that you add it to a copy of the long version, for members to take and read at their pleasure, (if cost is problem, bill me, address below). So when they realize some time in the near future of the 'real' risks i speak of from human/animal TSEs and blood/surgical products. I cannot explain the 'real' risk of this in 5 or 10 minutes at some meeting, or on 2 or 3 pages, but will attempt here:

remember AIDS/HIV, 'no problem to heterosexuals in the U.S.? no need to go into that, you know of this blunder.

DO NOT make these same stupid mistakes again with human/animal TSE's aka MADCOW DISEASE. I lost my Mom to hvCJD, and my neighbor lost his Mother to sCJD as well (both cases confirmed). I have seen many deaths, from many diseases. I have never seen anything as CJD, I still see my Mom laying helpless, jerking tremendously, and screaming "God, what's wrong with me, why can't I stop this". I still see this, and will never forget. Approximately 10 weeks from 1st of symptoms to death. This is what drives me. I have learned more in 3 years about not only human/animal TSE's but the cattle/rendering/feeding industry/government than i ever wished to.

I think you are all aware of CJD vs vCJD, but i don't think you all know the facts of human/animal TSE's as a whole, they are all very very similar, and are all tied to the same thing, GREED and MAN.

I am beginning to think that the endless attempt to track down and ban, potential victims from known BSE Countries from giving blood will be futile. You would have to ban everyone on the Globe eventually? AS well, I think we MUST ACT SWIFTLY to find blood test for TSE's, whether it be blood test, urine test, eyelid test, anything at whatever cost, we need a test FAST.

DO NOT let the incubation time period of these TSEs fool you.............

full text 6 pages ;


Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Singeltary, Sr et al. JAMA.2001; 285: 733-734.





MARCH 26, 2003

RE-Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob

disease in the United States

Email Terry S. Singeltary:

I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to

comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging

forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al [1] have reported that BSE

transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate

phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest

sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable

nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every

state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to

expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are

sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in

the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and

CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by

intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other

TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every

victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this

agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose

others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there

should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena

from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic

CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc?

THE PATHOLOGICAL PROTEIN Hardcover, 304 pages plus photos and illustrations. ISBN 0-387-95508-9

June 2003

BY Philip Yam


Answering critics like Terry Singeltary, who feels that the U.S. under- counts CJD, Schonberger conceded that the current surveillance system has errors but stated that most of the errors will be confined to the older population.

doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00715-1 Copyright © 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Newsdesk

Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America

Xavier Bosch

Available online 29 July 2003.

Volume 3, Issue 8, August 2003, Page 463

“My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost my mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD) and have been searching for answers ever since. What I have found is that we have not been told the truth. CWD in deer and elk is a small portion of a much bigger problem.”


see history of cjd questionnaire


Full Text Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Singeltary, Sr et al. JAMA.2001; 285: 733-734

Coexistence of multiple PrPSc types in individuals with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Magdalini Polymenidou, Katharina Stoeck, Markus Glatzel, Martin Vey, Anne Bellon, and Adriano Aguzzi


Background The molecular typing of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is based on the size and glycoform

ratio of protease-resistant prion protein (PrPSc), and on PRNP haplotype. On digestion with proteinase K, type 1 and

type 2 PrPSc display unglycosylated core fragments of 21 kDa and 19 kDa, resulting from cleavage around amino

acids 82 and 97, respectively.

Methods We generated anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies to epitopes immediately preceding the differential proteinase

K cleavage sites. These antibodies, which were designated POM2 and POM12, recognise type 1, but not type 2, PrPSc.

Findings We studied 114 brain samples from 70 patients with sporadic CJD and three patients with variant CJD.

Every patient classified as CJD type 2, and all variant CJD patients, showed POM2/POM12 reactivity in the

cerebellum and other PrPSc-rich brain areas, with a typical PrPSc type 1 migration pattern.

Interpretation The regular coexistence of multiple PrPSc types in patients with CJD casts doubts on the validity of

electrophoretic PrPSc mobilities as surrogates for prion strains, and questions the rational basis of current CJD



The above results set the existing CJD classifications

into debate and introduce interesting questions about

human CJD types. For example, do human prion types

exist in a dynamic equilibrium in the brains of affected

individuals? Do they coexist in most or even all CJD

cases? Is the biochemically identified PrPSc type simply

the dominant type, and not the only PrPSc species?

Published online October 31, 2005

Detection of Type 1 Prion Protein in Variant

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Helen M. Yull,* Diane L. Ritchie,*

Jan P.M. Langeveld,? Fred G. van Zijderveld,?

Moira E. Bruce,? James W. Ironside,* and

Mark W. Head*

From the National CJD Surveillance Unit,* School of Molecular

and Clinical Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh,

United Kingdom; Central Institute for Animal Disease Control

(CIDC)-Lelystad, ? Lelystad, The Netherlands; Institute for Animal

Health, Neuropathogenesis Unit, ? Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Molecular typing of the abnormal form of the prion

protein (PrPSc) has come to be regarded as a powerful

tool in the investigation of the prion diseases. All evidence

thus far presented indicates a single PrPSc molecular

type in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (termed

type 2B), presumably resulting from infection with a

single strain of the agent (bovine spongiform encephalopathy).

Here we show for the first time that the PrPSc

that accumulates in the brain in variant Creutzfeldt-

Jakob disease also contains a minority type 1 component.

This minority type 1 PrPSc was found in all 21

cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease tested, irrespective

of brain region examined, and was also

present in the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease tonsil.

The quantitative balance between PrPSc types was maintained

when variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was

transmitted to wild-type mice and was also found in

bovine spongiform encephalopathy cattle brain, indicating

that the agent rather than the host specifies their

relative representation. These results indicate that PrPSc

molecular typing is based on quantitative rather than

qualitative phenomena and point to a complex relationship

between prion protein biochemistry, disease phenotype

and agent strain. (Am J Pathol 2006, 168:151-157;

DOI: 10.2353/ajpath.2006.050766)



In the apparent absence of a foreign nucleic acid genome

associated with the agents responsible for transmissible

spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases,

efforts to provide a molecular definition of agent strain

have focused on biochemical differences in the abnormal,

disease-associated form of the prion protein, termed

PrPSc. Differences in PrPSc conformation and glycosylation

have been proposed to underlie disease phenotype

and form the biochemical basis of agent strain. This

proposal has found support in the observation that the

major phenotypic subtypes of sCJD appear to correlate

with the presence of either type 1 or type 2 PrPSc in

combination with the presence of either methionine or

valine at codon 129 of the prion protein gene.2 Similarly,

the PrPSc type associated with vCJD correlates with the

presence of type 2 PrPSc and is distinct from that found in

sCJD because of a characteristically high occupancy of

both N-linked glycosylation sites (type 2B).6,11 The

means by which such conformational difference is detected

is somewhat indirect; relying on the action of proteases,

primarily proteinase K, to degrade the normal

Figure 6. Type 1 PrPSc is a stable minority component of PrPSc from the vCJD

brain. Western blot analysis of PrP in a sample of cerebral cortex from a case

of vCJD during digestion with proteinase K is shown. Time points assayed

are indicated in minutes (T0, 5, 10, 30, 60, 120, 180). Duplicate blots were

probed with 3F4, which detects both type 1 and type 2 PrPSc, and with 12B2,

which detects type 1. The insert shows a shorter exposure of the same time

course study from a separate experiment also probed with 3F4. Both blots

included samples of cerebral cortex from a case of sporadic CJD MM1 (Type

1) and molecular weight markers (Markers) indicate weights in kd.

Figure 7. A minority type 1-like PrPSc is found in vCJD tonsil, vCJD transmitted

to mice and in BSE. Western blot analysis of PrPSc in a concentrated

sample of tonsil from a case of vCJD (Tonsil), in a concentrated brain sample

of a wild-type mouse (C57BL) infected with vCJD and in a sample of cattle

BSE brain (BSE) is shown. Tissue extracts were digested with proteinase K.

Duplicate blots were probed with either 3F4 or 6H4, both of which detect

type 1 and type 2 PrPSc, and with 12B2, which detects type 1. The blots

included samples of cerebral cortex from a case of sporadic CJD MM1 (Type

1) and molecular weight markers (Markers) indicate weights in kd.

Type 1 PrPSc in Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease 155

AJP January 2006, Vol. 168, No. 1

cellular form of PrP and produce a protease-resistant

core fragment of PrPSc that differs in the extent of its

N-terminal truncation according to the original


A complication has recently arisen with the finding that

both type 1 and type 2 can co-exist in the brains of

patients with sCJD.2,5-8 More recently this same phenomenon

has been demonstrated in patients with iatrogenically

acquired and familial forms of human prion disease.

9,10 The existence of this phenomenon is now

beyond doubt but its prevalence and its biological significance

remain a matter of debate.

Conventional Western blot analysis using antibodies

that detect type 1 and type 2 PrPSc has severe quantitative

limitations for the co-detection of type 1 and type 2

PrPSc in individual samples, suggesting that the prevalence

of co-occurrence of the two types might be underestimated.

We have sought to circumvent this problem by

using an antibody that is type 1-specific and applied this

to the sole remaining human prion disease where the

phenomenon of mixed PrPSc types has not yet been

shown, namely vCJD.

These results show that even in vCJD where susceptible

individuals have been infected supposedly by a

single strain of agent, both PrPSc types co-exist: a situation

reminiscent of that seen when similarly discriminant

antibodies were used to analyze experimental BSE in

sheep.14,17 In sporadic and familial CJD, individual

brains can show a wide range of relative amounts of the

two types in samples from different regions, but where

brains have been thoroughly investigated a predominant

type is usually evident.2,6,10 This differs from this report

on vCJD, where type 1 is present in all samples investigated

but always as a minor component that never

reaches a level at which it is detectable without a type

1-specific antibody. It would appear that the relative balance

between type 1 and type 2 is controlled within

certain limits in the vCJD brain. A minority type-1-like

band is also detected by 12B2 in vCJD tonsil, in BSE

brain and in the brains of mice experimentally infected

with vCJD, suggesting that this balance of types is agent,

rather than host or tissue, specific. Interestingly the "glycoform

signature" of the type 2 PrPSc found in vCJD (type

2B) is also seen in the type 1 PrPSc components, suggesting

that it could legitimately be termed type 1B.

PrPSc isotype analysis has proven to be extremely

useful in the differential diagnosis of CJD and is likely to

continue to have a major role in the investigation of human

prion diseases. However, it is clear, on the basis of

these findings, that molecular typing has quantitative limitations

and that any mechanistic explanation of prion

replication and the molecular basis of agent strain variation

must accommodate the co-existence of multiple

prion protein conformers. Whether or not the different

conformers we describe here correlate in a simple and

direct way with agent strain remains to be determined. In

principle two interpretations present themselves: either

the two conformers can be produced by a single strain of

agent or vCJD (and, therefore, presumably BSE) results

from a mixture of strains, one of which generally predominates.

Evidence for the isolation in mice of more than one

strain from individual isolates of BSE has been presented


One practical consequence of our findings is that the

correct interpretation of transmission studies will depend

on a full examination of the balance of molecular types

present in the inoculum used to transmit disease, in addition

to a thorough analysis of the molecular types that

arise in the recipients. Another consequence relates to

the diagnostic certainty of relying on PrPSc molecular

type alone when considering the possibility of BSE infection

or secondary transmission in humans who have a

genotype other than methionine at codon 129 of the

PRNP gene. In this context it is interesting to note that this

minority type 1B component resembles the type 5 PrPSc

described previously to characterize vCJD transmission

into certain humanized PRNP129VV transgenic mouse

models.12,20 This apparently abrupt change in molecular

phenotype might represent a selection process imposed

by this particular transgenic mouse model. Irrespective of

whether this proves to be the case, the results shown

here point to further complexities in the relationship between

the physico-chemical properties of the prion protein,

human disease phenotype, and prion agent strain.



Type 1 PrPSc in Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease 157

AJP January 2006, Vol. 168, No. 1 ...TSS

Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology



, 565-579 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2990.2005.00697.x

© 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd


Blackwell Science, LtdOxford, UKNANNeuropathology and Applied Neurobiology0305-1846Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2005


Review article

Phenotypic variability in human prion diseases

J. W. Ironside, D. L. Ritchie and M. W. Head

National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit, Division of Pathology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK

J. W. Ironside, D. L. Ritchie and M. W. Head (2005)

Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology



Phenotypic variability in human prion diseases

Human prion diseases are rare neurodegenerative disorders

that can occur as sporadic, familial or acquired disorders.

Within each of these categories there is a wide range

of phenotypic variation that is not encountered in other

neurodegenerative disorders. The identification of the

prion protein and its key role in the pathogenesis of this

diverse group of diseases has allowed a fuller understanding

of factors that influence disease phenotype. In particular,

the naturally occurring polymorphism at codon 129

in the prion protein gene has a major influence on the disease

phenotype in sporadic, familial and acquired prion

diseases, although the underlying mechanisms remain

unclear. Recent technical advances have improved our

ability to study the isoforms of the abnormal prion protein

in the brain and in other tissues. This has lead to the concept

of molecular strain typing, in which different isoforms

of the prion protein are proposed to correspond to

individual strains of the transmissible agent, each with

specific biological properties. In sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob

disease there are at least six major combinations of codon

129 genotype and prion protein isotype, which appear to

relate to distinctive clinical subgroups of this disease.

However, these relationships are proving to be more complex

than first considered, particularly in cases with more

than a single prion protein isotype in the brain. Further

work is required to clarify these relationships and to

explain the mechanism of neuropathological targeting of

specific brain regions, which accounts for the diversity of

clinical features within human prion diseases.

© 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 31, 565-579

BSE prions propagate as either variant CJD-like or

sporadic CJD-like prion strains in transgenic mice

expressing human prion protein

The EMBO Journal Vol. 21 No. 23 pp. 6358±6366, 2002

Emmanuel A.Asante, Jacqueline M.Linehan,

Melanie Desbruslais, Susan Joiner,

Ian Gowland, Andrew L.Wood, Julie Welch,

Andrew F.Hill, Sarah E.Lloyd,

Jonathan D.F.Wadsworth and

John Collinge1

MRC Prion Unit and Department of Neurodegenerative Disease,

Institute of Neurology, University College, Queen Square,

London WC1N 3BG, UK

1Corresponding author


Variant Creutzfeldt±Jakob disease (vCJD) has been

recognized to date only in individuals homozygous for

methionine at PRNP codon 129. Here we show that

transgenic mice expressing human PrP methionine

129, inoculated with either bovine spongiform

encephalopathy (BSE) or variant CJD prions, may

develop the neuropathological and molecular phenotype

of vCJD, consistent with these diseases being

caused by the same prion strain. Surprisingly, however,

BSE transmission to these transgenic mice, in

addition to producing a vCJD-like phenotype, can also

result in a distinct molecular phenotype that is indistinguishable

from that of sporadic CJD with PrPSc

type 2. These data suggest that more than one BSEderived

prion strain might infect humans; it is therefore

possible that some patients with a phenotype consistent

with sporadic CJD may have a disease arising

from BSE exposure.


These studies further strengthen the evidence that vCJD

is caused by a BSE-like prion strain. Also, remarkably, the

key neuropathological hallmark of vCJD, the presence of

abundant ¯orid PrP plaques, can be recapitulated on BSE

or vCJD transmission to these mice. However, the most

surprising aspect of the studies was the ®nding that an

alternate pattern of disease can be induced in 129MM

Tg35 mice from primary transmission of BSE, with a

molecular phenotype indistinguishable from that of a subtype

of sporadic CJD. This ®nding has important potential

implications as it raises the possibility that some humans

infected with BSE prions may develop a clinical disease

indistinguishable from classical CJD associated with type 2

PrPSc. This is, in our experience, the commonest molecular

sub-type of sporadic CJD. In this regard, it is of interest

that the reported incidence of sporadic CJD has risen in the

UK since the 1970s (Cousens et al., 1997). This has been

attributed to improved case ascertainment, particularly as

much of the rise is reported from elderly patients and

similar rises in incidence were noted in other European

countries without reported BSE (Will et al., 1998).

However, it is now clear that BSE is present in many

European countries, albeit at a much lower incidence than

was seen in the UK. While improved ascertainment is

likely to be a major factor in this rise, that some of these

additional cases may be related to BSE exposure cannot be

ruled out. It is of interest in this regard that a 2-fold

increase in the reported incidence of sporadic CJD in 2001

has recently been reported for Switzerland, a country that

had the highest incidence of cattle BSE in continental

Europe between 1990 and 2002 (Glatzel et al., 2002). No

epidemiological case±control studies with strati®cation of

CJD cases by molecular sub-type have yet been reported.

It will be important to review the incidence of sporadic

CJD associated with PrPSc type 2 and other molecular subtypes

in both BSE-affected and unaffected countries in the

light of these ®ndings. If human BSE prion infection can

result in propagation of type 2 PrPSc, it would be expected

that such cases would be indistinguishable on clinical,

pathological and molecular criteria from classical CJD. It

may also be expected that such prions would behave

biologically like those isolated from humans with sporadic

CJD with type 2 PrPSc. The transmission properties of

prions associated with type 2 PrPSc from BSE-inoculated

129MM Tg35 mice are being investigated by serial


We consider these data inconsistent with contamination

of some of the 129MM Tg35 mice with sporadic CJD

prions. These transmission studies were performed according

to rigorous biosafety protocols for preparation of

inocula and both the inoculation and care of mice, which

are all uniquely identi®ed by sub-cutaneous transponders.

However, crucially, the same BSE inocula have been used

on 129VV Tg152 and 129MM Tg45 mice, which are

highly sensitive to sporadic CJD but in which such

transmissions producing type 2 PrPSc were not observed.

Furthermore, in an independent experiment, separate

inbred lines of wild-type mice, which are highly resistant

to sporadic CJD prions, also propagated two distinctive

PrPSc types on challenge with either BSE or vCJD. No

evidence of spontaneous prion disease or PrPSc has been

seen in groups of uninoculated or mock-inoculated aged

129MM Tg35 mice.

While distinctive prion isolates have been derived from

BSE passage in mice previously (designated 301C and

301V), these, in contrast to the data presented here, are

propagated in mice expressing different prion proteins

(Bruce et al., 1994). It is unclear whether our ®ndings

indicate the existence of more than one prion strain in

individual cattle with BSE, with selection and preferential

replication of distinct strains by different hosts, or that

`mutation' of a unitary BSE strain occurs in some types of

host. Western blot analysis of single BSE isolates has not

shown evidence of the presence of a proportion of

monoglycosylated dominant PrPSc type in addition to the

diglycosylated dominant pattern (data not shown).

Extensive strain typing of large numbers of individual

BSE-infected cattle either by biological or molecular

methods has not been reported.

Presumably, the different genetic background of the

different inbred mouse lines is crucial in determining

which prion strain propagates on BSE inoculation. The

transgenic mice described here have a mixed genetic

background with contributions from FVB/N, C57BL/6 and

129Sv inbred lines; each mouse will therefore have a

different genetic background. This may explain the

differing response of individual 129MM Tg35 mice, and

the difference between 129MM Tg35 and 129MM Tg45

mice, which are, like all transgenic lines, populations

derived from single founders. Indeed, the consistent

distinctive strain propagation in FVB and C57BL/6 versus

SJL and RIIIS lines may allow mapping of genes relevant

to strain selection and propagation, and these studies are in


That different prion strains can be consistently isolated

in different inbred mouse lines challenged with BSE

prions argues that other species exposed to BSE may

develop prion diseases that are not recognizable as being

caused by the BSE strain by either biological or molecular

strain typing methods. As with 129MM Tg35 mice, the

prions replicating in such transmissions may be indistinguishable

from naturally occurring prion strains. It

remains of considerable concern whether BSE has transmitted

to, and is being maintained in, European sheep

¯ocks. Given the diversity of sheep breeds affected by

scrapie, it has to be considered that some sheep might have

become infected with BSE, but propagated a distinctive

strain type indistinguishable from those of natural sheep

scrapie. ...

The EMBO Journal Vol. 21 No. 23 pp. 6358±6366, 2002

6358 ãEuropean Molecular Biology Organization

J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 17:489-495, November 2005 doi: 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.17.4.489 © 2005 American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.

Psychiatric Manifestations of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A 25-Year Analysis Christopher A. Wall, M.D., Teresa A. Rummans, M.D., Allen J. Aksamit, M.D., Lois E. Krahn, M.D. and V. Shane Pankratz, Ph.D. Received April 20, 2004; revised September 9, 2004; accepted September 13, 2004. From the Mayo Clinic, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Rochester, Minnesota; Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurology, Rochester, Minnesota. Address correspondence to Dr. Wall, Mayo Clinic, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Building-W11A, 200 First St., SW, Rochester, MN 55905; (E-mail).

This study characterizes the type and timing of psychiatric manifestations in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Historically, sCJD has been characterized by prominent neurological symptoms, while the variant form (vCJD) is described as primarily psychiatric in presentation and course: A retrospective review of 126 sCJD patients evaluated at the Mayo Clinic from 1976-2001 was conducted. Cases were reviewed for symptoms of depression, anxiety, psychosis, behavior dyscontrol, sleep disturbances, and neurological signs during the disease course. Eighty percent of the cases demonstrated psychiatric symptoms within the first 100 days of illness, with 26% occurring at presentation. The most commonly reported symptoms in this population included sleep disturbances, psychotic symptoms, and depression. Psychiatric manifestations are an early and prominent feature of sporadic CJD, often occurring prior to formal diagnosis.



Historically, psychiatric manifestations have been described as a relatively infrequent occurrence in the sporadic form of creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. However, our findings suggest otherwise. In this study, a vast majority of the cases were noted to have at least one psychiatric symptom during the course of illness, with nearly one-quarter occurring in the prodromal or presenting phase of the illness. After comparing the frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms in sporadic CJD to studies describing the variant form of CJD, we found that there are fewer clinical differences than previously reported.5-7 While the age of patients with vCJD presentation is significantly younger and the course of illness is longer, the type and timing of psychiatric manifestations appear similar between these two diseases. ...snip...

Personal Communication

-------- Original Message --------

Subject: re-BSE prions propagate as

either variant CJD-like or sporadic CJD Date: Thu, 28 Nov 2002 10:23:43

-0000 From: "Asante, Emmanuel A" To: "''"

Dear Terry,

I have been asked by Professor Collinge to respond to your request. I am

a Senior Scientist in the MRC Prion Unit and the lead author on the

paper. I have attached a pdf copy of the paper for your attention. Thank

you for your interest in the paper.

In respect of your first question, the simple answer is, yes. As you

will find in the paper, we have managed to associate the alternate

phenotype to type 2 PrPSc, the commonest sporadic CJD.

It is too early to be able to claim any further sub-classification in

respect of Heidenhain variant CJD or Vicky Rimmer's version. It will

take further studies, which are on-going, to establish if there are

sub-types to our initial finding which we are now reporting. The main

point of the paper is that, as well as leading to the expected new

variant CJD phenotype, BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype

can lead to an alternate phenotype which is indistinguishable from type

2 PrPSc.

I hope reading the paper will enlighten you more on the subject. If I

can be of any further assistance please to not hesitate to ask. Best wishes.

Emmanuel Asante

<> ____________________________________

Dr. Emmanuel A Asante MRC Prion Unit & Neurogenetics Dept. Imperial

College School of Medicine (St. Mary's) Norfolk Place, LONDON W2 1PG

Tel: +44 (0)20 7594 3794 Fax: +44 (0)20 7706 3272 email: (until 9/12/02)

New e-mail: (active from now)


Human Prion Protein with

Valine 129 Prevents Expression

of Variant CJD Phenotype

Jonathan D. F. Wadsworth, Emmanuel A. Asante,

Melanie Desbruslais, Jacqueline M. Linehan, Susan Joiner,

Ian Gowland, Julie Welch, Lisa Stone, Sarah E. Lloyd,

Andrew F. Hill,* Sebastian Brandner, John Collinge.

Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a unique and highly distinctive

clinicopathological and molecular phenotype of human prion disease

associated with infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-like

prions. Here, we found that generation of this phenotype in transgenic mice

required expression of human prion protein (PrP) with methionine 129.

Expression of human PrP with valine 129 resulted in a distinct phenotype and,

remarkably, persistence of a barrier to transmission of BSE-derived prions on

subpassage. Polymorphic residue 129 of human PrP dictated propagation of

distinct prion strains after BSE prion infection. Thus, primary and secondary

human infection with BSE-derived prions may result in sporadic CJD-like or

novel phenotypes in addition to vCJD, depending on the genotype of the prion

source and the recipient.



Characterization of two distinct prion strains

derived from bovine spongiform encephalopathy

transmissions to inbred mice

Sarah E. Lloyd, Jacqueline M. Linehan, Melanie Desbruslais,

Susan Joiner, Jennifer Buckell, Sebastian Brandner,

Jonathan D. F. Wadsworth and John Collinge


John Collinge

MRC Prion Unit and Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology,

University College, London WC1N 3BG, UK

Received 9 December 2003

Accepted 27 April 2004

Distinct prion strains can be distinguished by differences in incubation period, neuropathology

and biochemical properties of disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in inoculated mice.

Reliable comparisons of mouse prion strain properties can only be achieved after passage in

genetically identical mice, as host prion protein sequence and genetic background are known

to modulate prion disease phenotypes. While multiple prion strains have been identified in

sheep scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is

thought to be caused by a single prion strain. Primary passage of BSE prions to different lines

of inbred mice resulted in the propagation of two distinct PrPSc types, suggesting that two

prion strains may have been isolated. To investigate this further, these isolates were

subpassaged in a single line of inbred mice (SJL) and it was confirmed that two distinct prion

strains had been identified. MRC1 was characterized by a short incubation time (110±3 days),

a mono-glycosylated-dominant PrPSc type and a generalized diffuse pattern of PrP-immunoreactive

deposits, while MRC2 displayed a much longer incubation time (155±1 days),

a di-glycosylated-dominant PrPSc type and a distinct pattern of PrP-immunoreactive deposits

and neuronal loss. These data indicate a crucial involvement of the host genome in modulating

prion strain selection and propagation in mice. It is possible that multiple disease phenotypes

may also be possible in BSE prion infection in humans and other animals.


Journal of General Virology (2004), 85, 2471-2478 DOI 10.1099/vir.0.79889-0

Medical Sciences Identification of a second bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy: Molecular similarities with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Cristina Casalone *, Gianluigi Zanusso , Pierluigi Acutis *, Sergio Ferrari , Lorenzo Capucci , Fabrizio Tagliavini ¶, Salvatore Monaco , and Maria Caramelli *

*Centro di Referenza Nazionale per le Encefalopatie Animali, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta, Via Bologna, 148, 10195 Turin, Italy; Department of Neurological and Visual Science, Section of Clinical Neurology, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, Piazzale L.A. Scuro, 10, 37134 Verona, Italy; Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia ed Emilia Romagna, Via Bianchi, 9, 25124 Brescia, Italy; and ¶Istituto Nazionale Neurologico "Carlo Besta," Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy

Edited by Stanley B. Prusiner, University of California, San Francisco, CA, and approved December 23, 2003 (received for review September 9, 2003)

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, are mammalian neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a posttranslational conversion and brain accumulation of an insoluble, protease-resistant isoform (PrPSc) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). Human and animal TSE agents exist as different phenotypes that can be biochemically differentiated on the basis of the molecular mass of the protease-resistant PrPSc fragments and the degree of glycosylation. Epidemiological, molecular, and transmission studies strongly suggest that the single strain of agent responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has infected humans, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The unprecedented biological properties of the BSE agent, which circumvents the so-called "species barrier" between cattle and humans and adapts to different mammalian species, has raised considerable concern for human health. To date, it is unknown whether more than one strain might be responsible for cattle TSE or whether the BSE agent undergoes phenotypic variation after natural transmission. Here we provide evidence of a second cattle TSE. The disorder was pathologically characterized by the presence of PrP-immunopositive amyloid plaques, as opposed to the lack of amyloid deposition in typical BSE cases, and by a different pattern of regional distribution and topology of brain PrPSc accumulation. In addition, Western blot analysis showed a PrPSc type with predominance of the low molecular mass glycoform and a protease-resistant fragment of lower molecular mass than BSE-PrPSc. Strikingly, the molecular signature of this previously undescribed bovine PrPSc was similar to that encountered in a distinct subtype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.


C.C. and G.Z. contributed equally to this work.

To whom correspondence should be addressed.

E-mail: .


Phenotypic Similarities Between BASE and sCJD. The transmissibility

of CJD brains was initially demonstrated in primates (27), and

classification of atypical cases as CJD was based on this property

(28). To date, no systematic studies of strain typing in sCJD have

been provided, and classification of different subtypes is based

on clinical, neuropathological, and molecular features (the polymorphic

PRNP codon 129 and the PrPSc glycotype) (8, 9, 15, 19).

The importance of molecular PrPSc characterization in assessing

the identity of TSE strains is underscored by several studies,

showing that the stability of given disease-specific PrPSc types is

maintained upon experimental propagation of sCJD, familial

CJD, and vCJD isolates in transgenic PrP-humanized mice (8,

29). Similarly, biochemical properties of BSE- and vCJDassociated

PrPSc molecules remain stable after passage to mice

expressing bovine PrP (30). Recently, however, it has been

reported that PrP-humanized mice inoculated with BSE tissues

may also propagate a distinctive PrPSc type, with a ''monoglycosylated-

dominant'' pattern and electrophoretic mobility of the

unglycosylated fragment slower than that of vCJD and BSE (31).

Strikingly, this PrPSc type shares its molecular properties with the

a PrPSc molecule found in classical sCJD. This observation is at

variance with the PrPSc type found in MV2 sCJD cases and in

cattle BASE, showing a monoglycosylated-dominant pattern but

faster electrophoretic mobility of the protease-resistant fragment

as compared with BSE. In addition to molecular properties

of PrPSc, BASE and MV2 sCJD share a distinctive pattern of

intracerebral PrP deposition, which occurs as plaque-like and

amyloid-kuru plaques. Differences were, however, observed in

the regional distribution of PrPSc. While inMV2 sCJD cases the

largest amounts of PrPSc were detected in the cerebellum,

brainstem, and striatum, in cattle BASE these areas were less

involved and the highest levels of PrPSc were recovered from the

thalamus and olfactory regions.

In conclusion, decoding the biochemical PrPSc signature of

individual human and animal TSE strains may allow the identification

of potential risk factors for human disorders with

unknown etiology, such as sCJD. However, although BASE and

sCJD share several characteristics, caution is dictated in assessing

a link between conditions affecting two different mammalian

species, based on convergent biochemical properties of diseaseassociated

PrPSc types. Strains of TSE agents may be better

characterized upon passage to transgenic mice. In the interim

until this is accomplished, our present findings suggest a strict

epidemiological surveillance of cattle TSE and sCJD based on

molecular criteria.

Published online before print March 20, 2001, 10.1073/pnas.041490898

Neurobiology Adaptation of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent to primates and comparison with Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease: Implications for human health Corinne Ida Lasmézas*,, Jean-Guy Fournier*, Virginie Nouvel*, Hermann Boe*, Domíníque Marcé*, François Lamoury*, Nicolas Kopp, Jean-Jacques Hauw§, James Ironside¶, Moira Bruce, Dominique Dormont*, and Jean-Philippe Deslys*

* Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, Service de Neurovirologie, Direction des Sciences du Vivant/Département de Recherche Medicale, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées 60-68, Avenue du Général Leclerc, BP 6, 92 265 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex, France; Hôpital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer, 59, Boulevard Pinel, 69003 Lyon, France; § Laboratoire de Neuropathologie, Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, 83, Boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France; ¶ Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, United Kingdom; and Institute for Animal Health, Neuropathogenesis Unit, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JF, United Kingdom

Edited by D. Carleton Gajdusek, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, and approved December 7, 2000 (received for review October 16, 2000)


There is substantial scientific evidence to support the notion that bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has contaminated human beings, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). This disease has raised concerns about the possibility of an iatrogenic secondary transmission to humans, because the biological properties of the primate-adapted BSE agent are unknown. We show that (i) BSE can be transmitted from primate to primate by intravenous route in 25 months, and (ii) an iatrogenic transmission of vCJD to humans could be readily recognized pathologically, whether it occurs by the central or peripheral route. Strain typing in mice demonstrates that the BSE agent adapts to macaques in the same way as it does to humans and confirms that the BSE agent is responsible for vCJD not only in the United Kingdom but also in France. The agent responsible for French iatrogenic growth hormone-linked CJD taken as a control is very different from vCJD but is similar to that found in one case of sporadic CJD and one sheep scrapie isolate. These data will be key in identifying the origin of human cases of prion disease, including accidental vCJD transmission, and could provide bases for vCJD risk assessment.


Characterization of the CJD and Scrapie Strains. Controls were set up by transmitting one French and one U.S. scrapie isolate from ruminants as well as French sCJD and iCJD cases from humans. None of these revealed a lesion profile or transmission characteristics similar or close to those of BSE or vCJD, respectively, thus extending to the present French scrapie isolate the previous observation that the BSE agent was different from all known natural scrapie strains (4, 24).

The lesion profiles of sCJD and iCJD differed only slightly in severity of the lesions, but not in shape of the profile, revealing the identity of the causative agents. One of us reported the absence of similarity between sCJD (six cases) and U.K. scrapie (eight cases) in transmission characteristics in mice (4). Herein, we made the striking observation that the French natural scrapie strain (but not the U.S. scrapie strain) has the same lesion profile and transmission times in C57BL/6 mice as do the two human TSE strains studied. This strain "affiliation" was confirmed biochemically. There is no epidemiological evidence for a link between sheep scrapie and the occurrence of CJD in humans (25). However, such a link, if it is not a general rule, would be extremely difficult to establish because of the very low incidence of CJD as well as the existence of different isolates in humans and multiple strains in scrapie. Moreover, scrapie is transmissible to nonhuman primates (26). Thus, there is still a possibility that in some instances TSE strains infecting humans do share a common origin with scrapie, as pointed out by our findings.


1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8

Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.

Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.

Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.

PMID: 6997404


Interspecies Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions to

Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)

Richard F. Marsh,1? Anthony E. Kincaid,2 Richard A. Bessen,3 and Jason C. Bartz4*

Department of Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison 537061; Department of

Physical Therapy2 and Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology,4 Creighton University, Omaha,

Nebraska 68178; and Department of Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana

State University, Bozeman, Montana 597183

Received 3 May 2005/Accepted 10 August 2005

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging prion disease of deer and elk. The risk of CWD transmission

to humans following exposure to CWD-infected tissues is unknown. To assess the susceptibility of nonhuman

primates to CWD, two squirrel monkeys were inoculated with brain tissue from a CWD-infected mule deer. The

CWD-inoculated squirrel monkeys developed a progressive neurodegenerative disease and were euthanized at

31 and 34 months postinfection. Brain tissue from the CWD-infected squirrel monkeys contained the abnormal

isoform of the prion protein, PrP-res, and displayed spongiform degeneration. This is the first reported

transmission of CWD to primates.


JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, Nov. 2005, p. 13794-13796 Vol. 79, No. 21

0022-538X/05/$08.00!0 doi:10.1128/JVI.79.21.13794-13796.2005

Copyright © 2005, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


The EMBO Journal, Vol. 19, No. 17 pp. 4425-4430, 2000 © European Molecular Biology Organization

Evidence of a molecular barrier limiting susceptibility of humans, cattle and sheep to chronic wasting disease

G.J. Raymond1, A. Bossers2, L.D. Raymond1, K.I. O?Rourke3, L.E. McHolland4, P.K. Bryant III4, M.W. Miller5, E.S. Williams6, M. Smits2 and B. Caughey1,7

1NIAID/NIH Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT 59840, 3USDA/ARS/ADRU, Pullman, WA 99164-7030, 4USDA/ARS/ABADRL, Laramie, WY 82071, 5Colorado Division of Wildlife, Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO 80526-2097, 6Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82070, USA and 2ID-Lelystad, Institute for Animal Science and Health, Lelystad, The Netherlands 7Corresponding author e-mail: Received June 7, 2000; revised July 3, 2000; accepted July 5, 2000.


Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and elk, and little is known about its transmissibility to other species. An important factor controlling interspecies TSE susceptibility is prion protein (PrP) homology between the source and recipient species/genotypes. Furthermore, the efficiency with which the protease-resistant PrP (PrP-res) of one species induces the in vitro conversion of the normal PrP (PrP-sen) of another species to the protease-resistant state correlates with the cross-species transmissibility of TSE agents. Here we show that the CWD-associated PrP-res (PrPCWD) of cervids readily induces the conversion of recombinant cervid PrP-sen molecules to the protease-resistant state in accordance with the known transmissibility of CWD between cervids. In contrast, PrPCWD-induced conversions of human and bovine PrP-sen were much less efficient, and conversion of ovine PrP-sen was intermediate. These results demonstrate a barrier at the molecular level that should limit the susceptibility of these non-cervid species to CWD.


Clearly, it is premature to draw firm conclusions about CWD passing naturally into humans, cattle and sheep, but the present results suggest that CWD transmissions to humans would be as limited by PrP incompatibility as transmissions of BSE or sheep scrapie to humans. Although there is no evidence that sheep scrapie has affected humans, it is likely that BSE has caused variant CJD in 74 people (definite and probable variant CJD cases to date according to the UK CJD Surveillance Unit). Given the presumably large number of people exposed to BSE infectivity, the susceptibility of humans may still be very low compared with cattle, which would be consistent with the relatively inefficient conversion of human PrP-sen by PrPBSE. Nonetheless, since humans have apparently been infected by BSE, it would seem prudent to take reasonable measures to limit exposure of humans (as well as sheep and cattle) to CWD infectivity as has been recommended for other animal TSEs.


Neurology 1999;52:1757 © 1999 American Academy of Neurology


Expedited Publication

A subtype of sporadic prion disease mimicking fatal familial insomnia P. Parchi, MD, S. Capellari, MD, S. Chin, MD, PhD, H. B. Schwarz, MD, N. P. Schecter, MD, J. D. Butts, MD, P. Hudkins, MD, D. K. Burns MD, J. M. Powers, MD and P. Gambetti, MD

Transfusion Volume 43 Issue 12 Page 1687 - December 2003 doi:10.1046/j.0041-1132.2003.00586.x

Similar levels of infectivity in the blood of mice infected with human-derived vCJD and GSS strains of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy Larisa Cervenakova, Oksana Yakovleva, Carroll McKenzie, Svetlana Kolchinsky, Lisa McShane, William N. Drohan, and Paul Brown


The possible transmission of variant CJD (vCJD) through blood transfusion or use of plasma-derived products prompted this study comparing infectivity in murine models of vCJD and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) disease, a non-vCJD form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE).


RIII/Fa/Dk (RIII) or Swiss-Webster (Swiss) mice were inoculated intracerebrally (IC) with mouse-adapted strains of vCJD or GSS (Fukuoka-1) of similar infectivity. Groups of RIII mice were euthanized 17 weeks after inoculation (during the incubation period), and another 23 weeks after inoculation (when symptomatic). Blood was collected, separated into components, and inoculated into groups of healthy mice; brains and spleens from all mice were harvested and tested for the presence of PrPres by Western blot using 6H4 MoAb.


Levels of 20-30 infectious doses per mL were present in buffy coat and plasma during both the incubation and symptomatic stages of disease; PLT pellet infectivity was lower (10 ID/mL) and RBCs were not infectious. The disease was transmitted more efficiently by IV than IC inoculation of plasma, but there was no difference observed with inoculation of buffy coat. The incubation period was shorter after IC inoculation of GSS- than vCJD-brain inocula. The amount of PrPres in spleens was similar for both TSE agents, but was slightly lower in brains of vCJD than GSS mice.


Infectivity was detected in blood components of mice infected with a human-derived strain of vCJD during both the preclinical and clinical phases of disease in a similarly low range of concentrations as in mice infected with a human-derived nonvariant strain (GSS, Fukuoka-1). Other measures of virulence, including brain infectivity titers, incubation periods, and the accumulation of PrPres in spleens and brains, were also comparable in both experimental models.






Summary of SEAC's discussion on the second presumed case of blood

transfusion-associated infection with vCJD

Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease from Blood and Urine Into Mice

The Lancet, November 9, 1985

Sir,--Professor Manuelidis and his colleagues (Oct 19, p896) report transmission to animals of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) from the buffy coat from two patients. We also transmitted the disease from whole blood samples of a patient (and of mice) infected with CJD.1 Brain, Cornea, and urine from this patient were also infectious, and the clinicopathological findings2 are summarised as follows.

A 70-year-old man was noted to have a slowing of speech and writing and some disorientation, all of which progressed rapidly. Decorticate rigidity, forced grasping, positive snout reflex, and myoclonus appeared within 2 months. Electroencephalogram revealed typical periodic synchronous discharge, and he died of pneumonia and upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage, about 3 months after onset of the symptoms. The Brain weighed 1290g and showed severe histological changes diagnostic of CJD, including spongiform change, loss of nerve cells, and diffuse proliferation of astrocytes. There were no inflammatory cells, microglia, neurofibrillary tangles, and amyloid plaques, although virus-like particles were detected by electron microscopy.

Results of innoculation in Mice

Inocula NO* Incubation period (days)+ Brain 7/10 (4) 789 (+ or - 112) Cornea 1/6 (0) 1037 Blood 2/13 (0) 1080 (+ or - 69) Urine 5/10 (1) 880 (+ or - 55) CSF 0/10

* Number of mice with CJD change/number examined histologically. Number with amyloid plaques shown in parentheses.

+ means + or - SD

Samples were taken aseptically at necropsy. 10% crude homogenates of brain and cornea in saline, whole blood (after crushing a clot), and untreated CSF and urine were innoculated intracerebrally into CF1 strain mice (20 ul per animal). Some mice showed emaciation, bradykinesia, rigidity of the body and tail, and sometimes tremor after long incubation periods. Tissues obtained after the animal died (or was killed) were studied histologically (table). Animals infected by various inocula showed common pathological changes, consisting of severe spongiform changes, glial proliferation, and a moderate loss of nerve cells. A few mice inoculated with brain tissue or urine had the same amyloid plaques found in patients and animals with CJD.3

In our long-term experiments, inoculating materials taken from twenty patients with CJD or Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker's disease (GSS) into rodents, positive results were obtained in seventeen cases, including this patient. Brain tissue transmitted the disease most frequently within the shortes incubation period, except for one case where the lymph node was the most infectious. Transmission through the cornea has been noted in man4 and in guineapigs.5 Whole blood samples taken from three patients were inoculated and a positive transmission occured only in the case recorded here. Mouse-to-mouse transmission through blood inoculation was successful after a mean incubation period of 365 days.1 Transmission through urine was positive in this patient only, and negative in one other patient and in many infected animals. Transmission through the CSF from eight patients was negative, yet transmission via the CSF of infected rats was positive.1

As viraemia has been proved in guineapigs,6 mice,1,7 and lately in patients with CJD, blood for transfusion or blood products for medical use must be tested for unconventional pathogens. For this purpose, we inoculated blood products inot rodents.8 The CJD pathogen was not found in the products examined. However, this approach takes too long to be of practical value. More efficient methods must be developed to detect pathogens and to eliminate them from blood. One proposal9 is to apply membrane filtration to the pruification protocol of human growth hormone suspected of being contaminated with CJD. Similar methods are needed for blood contamination.

Department of Neuropathology, Neurological Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka812, Japan


1. Tateishi J, Sato Y, Kaga M. Doi H, Ohta M. Experimental transmission of human subacute spongiform encephalopathy to small rodents 1: Clinical and histological observations. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1980; 51: 127.

2. Shibayama Y, Sakaguchi Y, Nakata K, et al, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with demonstration of virus-like particles. Acta pathol Jpn 1982;32: 695.

3. Tateishi J, Nagara H, Hikita K, Sato Y. Amyloid plaques in the brains of mice with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Ann Neurol 1984; 15: 278.

4. Duffy P, Wolf J, Colings G, DeVoe AG, Streeten B, Cowen D. Possible person-to-person transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. N Engl J Med 1974; 290: 692.

5. Manuelidis EE, Angelo JN, Gorgacz EJ, Kim JH, Manuelidis L. Experimental Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease transmitted via the eye with infected cornea. N Engl J Med 1977; 296: 1334.

6. Manuelidis EE, Gorgacz EJ, Manuelidis L. Viremia in experimental Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Science 1978: 200: 1069.

7. Kuroda Y, Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Gajdusek DC. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in mice. Persistent viremiam and preferential replication of virus in low-density lymphocytes. Infect Immun 1983; 41: 154.

8. Tateishi J, Tsuji S. Unconventional pathogens causing spongiform encephalopathis absent in blood products. J Med Virol 1985; 15: 11.

9. Tateishi J, Kitamoto T, Hiratani H. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease pathogen in growth hormone preparations is eliminatable. Lancet (in press).


Volume 3, Number 8 01 August 2003


Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America

Xavier Bosch

My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost

my mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD) and have been searching for

answers ever since. What I have found is that we have not been told the

truth. CWD in deer and elk is a small portion of a much bigger problem.

49-year-old Singeltary is one of a number of people who have remained

largely unsatisfied after being told that a close relative died from a

rapidly progressive dementia compatible with spontaneous

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). So he decided to gather hundreds of

documents on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and

realised that if Britons could get variant CJD from bovine spongiform

encephalopathy (BSE), Americans might get a similar disorder from

chronic wasting disease (CWD) the relative of mad cow disease seen among

deer and elk in the USA. Although his feverish search did not lead him

to the smoking gun linking CWD to a similar disease in North American

people, it did uncover a largely disappointing situation.

Singeltary was greatly demoralised at the few attempts to monitor the

occurrence of CJD and CWD in the USA. Only a few states have made CJD

reportable. Human and animal TSEs should be reportable nationwide and

internationally, he complained in a letter to the Journal of the

American Medical Association (JAMA 2003; 285: 733). I hope that the CDC

does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85% plus of all

CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route or source.

Until recently, CWD was thought to be confined to the wild in a small

region in Colorado. But since early 2002, it has been reported in other

areas, including Wisconsin, South Dakota, and the Canadian province of

Saskatchewan. Indeed, the occurrence of CWD in states that were not

endemic previously increased concern about a widespread outbreak and

possible transmission to people and cattle.

To date, experimental studies have proven that the CWD agent can be

transmitted to cattle by intracerebral inoculation and that it can cross

the mucous membranes of the digestive tract to initiate infection in

lymphoid tissue before invasion of the central nervous system. Yet the

plausibility of CWD spreading to people has remained elusive.

Part of the problem seems to stem from the US surveillance system. CJD

is only reported in those areas known to be endemic foci of CWD.

Moreover, US authorities have been criticised for not having performed

enough prionic tests in farm deer and elk.

Although in November last year the US Food and Drug Administration

issued a directive to state public-health and agriculture officials

prohibiting material from CWD-positive animals from being used as an

ingredient in feed for any animal species, epidemiological control and

research in the USA has been quite different from the situation in the

UK and Europe regarding BSE.

Getting data on TSEs in the USA from the government is like pulling

teeth, Singeltary argues. You get it when they want you to have it,

and only what they want you to have.

Norman Foster, director of the Cognitive Disorders Clinic at the

University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI, USA), says that current

surveillance of prion disease in people in the USA is inadequate to

detect whether CWD is occurring in human beings; adding that, the

cases that we know about are reassuring, because they do not suggest the

appearance of a new variant of CJD in the USA or atypical features in

patients that might be exposed to CWD. However, until we establish a

system that identifies and analyses a high proportion of suspected prion

disease cases we will not know for sure. The USA should develop a

system modelled on that established in the UK, he points out.

Ali Samii, a neurologist at Seattle VA Medical Center who recently

reported the cases of three hunters two of whom were friends who died

from pathologically confirmed CJD, says that at present there are

insufficient data to claim transmission of CWD into humans; adding that

[only] by asking [the questions of venison consumption and deer/elk

hunting] in every case can we collect suspect cases and look into the

plausibility of transmission further. Samii argues that by making both

doctors and hunters more aware of the possibility of prions spreading

through eating venison, doctors treating hunters with dementia can

consider a possible prion disease, and doctors treating CJD patients

will know to ask whether they ate venison.

CDC spokesman Ermias Belay says that the CDC will not be investigating

the [Samii] cases because there is no evidence that the men ate

CWD-infected meat. He notes that although the likelihood of CWD

jumping the species barrier to infect humans cannot be ruled out 100%

and that [we] cannot be 100% sure that CWD does not exist in humans&

the data seeking evidence of CWD transmission to humans have been very


he complained in a letter to the Journal of the American Medical

Association (JAMA 2003; 285: 733). I hope that the CDC does not

continue to expect us to still believe that the 85% plus of all CJD

cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route or source.<<< 8="includes" 1="3" 6="7" humans =" sCJD" 2005 =" 0.69" safety ="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="" b =" atypical" c =" case" ip ="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="" 2001 ="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="">104-fold range. The CDI has been automated, which not only improves accuracy and reproducibility (10) but also allows numerous samples to be analyzed, as reported here. Western blots are difficult to automate and are labor intensive.

Our studies show that only the CDI detected PrPSc in all regions examined in 24 sCJD and 3 fCJD(E200K) brains (Figs. 2 and 6). Comparative analyses demonstrated that the CDI was vastly superior to histology and IHC. When 18 regions of 8 sCJD and 2 fCJD(E200K) brains were compared, we discovered that histology and IHC were unreliable diagnostic tools except for samples from a few brain regions. In contrast, the CDI was a superb diagnostic procedure because it detected PrPSc in all 18 regions in 8 of 8 sCJD and 2 of 2 fCJD(E200K) cases (Tables 1 and 2).

Histologic changes in prion disease have been shown to follow the accumulation of prions as measured by bioassay of infectivity and by PrPSc accumulation (18-22). Because low levels of PrPSc are not associated with neuropathologic changes, some discrepancy between vacuolation and PrPSc was expected. In contrast to histology, IHC measures PrP immunostaining after autoclaving tissue sections exposed to formic acid. Because IHC measures PrP, we expected the sensitivity of this procedure might be similar to the CDI, but that proved not to be the case. Whether exposure of formic acid-treated tissue sections to elevated temperature destroys not only PrPC but also sPrPSc and only denatures rPrPSc remains to be determined. Such a scenario could account for the lower sensitivity of IHC compared with CDI or bioassay (Tables 1 and 2).

Studies of the white matter in CJD brains were particularly informative with respect to the sensitivity of the CDI, where PrPSc levels were low but readily detectable, 10- to 100-fold above the threshold value (Fig. 4). Because animal studies have shown that PrPSc and infectivity are transported anterogradely from one brain region to another along neuroanatomical pathways (23-25), we expected to find PrPSc in white matter as demonstrated by the CDI but not IHC. Axonal transport of PrPSc is also suggested by diffusion-weighted MRI scans of CJD cases, which show high-intensity signals in analogous neocortical regions of the right and left cerebral hemispheres (26). This symmetry of neuroradiological abnormalities is consistent with spread of PrPSc to the contralateral cortex by means of callosal commissural pathways.

Most immunoassays that detect HuPrPSc do so only after subjecting the sample to limited proteolysis to form PrP 27-30, followed by denaturation. Because the CDI measures the immunoreactivity before and after denaturation to an epitope that is exposed in native PrPC but buried in PrPSc, limited proteolysis to eliminate PrPC is unnecessary. Assays based on limited proteolysis underestimate the level of PrPSc because they digest sPrPSc, which represents 80-90% of PrPSc in CJD and scrapie brains (Fig. 4 and Table 5).

Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker, an inherited human prion disease, is caused by the P102L mutation in the PRNP gene. In mice expressing the Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker mutant PrP transgene, the CDI detected high levels of sPrPSc(P101L) as well as low levels of rPrPSc(P101L) long before neurodegeneration and clinical symptoms occurred (9). sPrPSc(P101L) as well as low concentrations of rPrPSc(P101L) previously escaped detection (27). Whether a similar situation applies in other genetic forms of prion disease, sCJD, or variant CJD remains to be determined. Because most of the PrPSc in the brains of sCJD patients is protease-sensitive (Fig. 4), it is likely that the lower sensitivity of IHC is due to its inability to detect sPrPSc. Presently, we have no information about the kinetics of either sPrPSc or rPrPSc accumulation in human brain. Limited information on the kinetics of PrPSc accumulation in livestock comes from studies of cattle, sheep, and goats inoculated orally, but most of the bioassays were performed in non-Tg mice (28-30) in which prion titers were underestimated by as much as a factor of 104 (10).

The studies reported here are likely to change profoundly the approach to the diagnosis of prion disease in both humans and livestock (31-33). The superior performance of the CDI in diagnosing prion disease compared to routine neuropathologic examination and IHC demands that the CDI be used in future diagnostic evaluations of prion disease. Prion disease can no longer be ruled out by routine histology or IHC. Moreover, the use of IHC to confirm cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy after detection of bovine PrPSc by the CDI (10) seems an untenable approach in the future. Clearly, the CDI for HuPrPSc is as sensitive or more sensitive than bioassays in Tg(MHu2M) mice (Fig. 1).

Our results suggest that using the CDI to test large numbers of samples for human prions might alter the epidemiology of prion diseases. At present, there is limited data on the frequency of subclinical variant CJD infections in the U.K. population (34). Because appendixes and tonsils were evaluated only by IHC, many cases might have escaped detection (Tables 1 and 2). Equally important may be the use of CDI-like tests to diagnose other neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and the frontotemporal dementias. Whether IHC underestimates the incidence of one or more of these common degenerative diseases is unknown. Moreover, CDI-like tests may help determine the frequency with which these disorders and the prion diseases occurs concomitantly in a single patient (35, 36).



Volume 349:1812-1820 November 6, 2003 Number 19

Extraneural Pathologic Prion Protein in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Background In patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, pathologic disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) has been identified only in the central nervous system and olfactory-nerve tissue. Understanding the distribution of PrPSc in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is important for classification and diagnosis and perhaps even for prevention.

Methods We used a highly sensitive method of detection - involving the concentration of PrPSc by differential precipitation with sodium phosphotungstic acid, which increased the sensitivity of Western blot analysis by up to three orders of magnitude - to search for PrPSc in extraneural organs of 36 patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease who died between 1996 and 2002.

Results PrPSc was present in the brain tissue of all patients. In addition, we found PrPSc in 10 of 28 spleen specimens and in 8 of 32 skeletal-muscle samples. Three patients had PrPSc in both spleen and muscle specimens. Patients with extraneural PrPSc had a significantly longer duration of disease and were more likely to have uncommon molecular variants of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease than were patients without extraneural PrPSc.

Conclusions Using sensitive techniques, we identified extraneural deposition of PrPSc in spleen and muscle samples from approximately one third of patients who died with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Extraneural PrPSc appears to correlate with a long duration of disease.

Source Information

From the Institute of Neuropathology and National Reference Center for Prion Diseases, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Dr. Glatzel and Mr. Abela contributed equally to the article.

Address reprint requests to Dr. Aguzzi at the Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital of Zurich, Schmelzbergstr. 12, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland, or at .

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and inclusion body myositis: Abundant disease-associated prion protein in muscle

Gabor G. Kovacs, MD PhD 1 2, Elisabeth Lindeck-Pozza, MD 1, Leila Chimelli, MD, PhD 3, Abelardo Q. C. Araújo, MD, PhD 4, Alberto A. Gabbai, MD, PhD 5, Thomas Ströbel, PhD 1, Markus Glatzel, MD 6, Adriano Aguzzi, MD, PhD 6, Herbert Budka, MD 1 * 1Institute of Neurology, University of Vienna, and Austrian Reference Centre for Human Prion Diseases, Vienna, Austria 2National Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Budapest, Hungary 3Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro 4Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro 5Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brazil 6Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland email: Herbert Budka ( )

*Correspondence to Herbert Budka, Institute of Neurology, AKH 4J, Wühringer Gürtel 18-20, POB 48, A-1097 Vienna, Austria

Funded by: European Union (EU) Project; Grant Number: TSELAB QLK2-CT-2002-81523 EU Concerted Action PRIONET; Grant Number: QLK2-2000-CT-00837


Pathologicalprion protein (PrPSc) is the hallmark of prion diseases affecting primarily the central nervous system. Using immunohistochemistry, paraffin-embedded tissue blot, and Western blot, we demonstrated abundant PrPSc in the muscle of a patient with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and inclusion body myositis. Extraneural PrPC-PrPSc conversion in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease appears to become prominent when PrPC is abundantly available as substrate, as in inclusion body myositis muscle.


Received: 16 June 2003; Revised: 11 September 2003; Accepted: 11 September 2003 Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

10.1002/ana.10813 About DOI


full text;

please note;

EPA's EDOCKET has been migrated into a federal-wide system to better serve citizens EDOCKET Replaced by FDMS

As of Friday, November 25, 2005 at 8 am, EDOCKET became permanently unavailable.

Transfusion Volume 43 Page 1687 - December 2003 doi:10.1046/j.0041-1132.2003.00586.xVolume 43 Issue 12 Similar levels of infectivity in the blood of mice infected with human-derived vCJD and GSS strains of transmissible spongiform encephalopathyLarisa Cervenakova, Oksana Yakovleva, Carroll McKenzie, Svetlana Kolchinsky, Lisa McShane, William N. Drohan, and Paul Brown

BACKGROUND: The possible transmission of variant CJD (vCJD) through blood transfusion or use of plasma-derived products prompted this study comparing infectivity in murine models of vCJD and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) disease, a non-vCJD form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE).

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: RIII/Fa/Dk (RIII) or Swiss-Webster (Swiss) mice were inoculated intracerebrally (IC) with mouse-adapted strains of vCJD or GSS (Fukuoka-1) of similar infectivity. Groups of RIII mice were euthanized 17 weeks after inoculation (during the incubation period), and another 23 weeks after inoculation (when symptomatic). Blood was collected, separated into components, and inoculated into groups of healthy mice; brains and spleens from all mice were harvested and tested for the presence of PrPres by Western blot using 6H4 MoAb.

RESULTS: Levels of 20-30 infectious doses per mL were present in buffy coat and plasma during both the incubation and symptomatic stages of disease; PLT pellet infectivity was lower (10 ID/mL) and RBCs were not infectious. The disease was transmitted more efficiently by IV than IC inoculation of plasma, but there was no difference observed with inoculation of buffy coat. The incubation period was shorter after IC inoculation of GSS- than vCJD-brain inocula. The amount of PrPres in spleens was similar for both TSE agents, but was slightly lower in brains of vCJD than GSS mice.

CONCLUSION: Infectivity was detected in blood components of mice infected with a human-derived strain of vCJD during both the preclinical and clinical phases of disease in a similarly low range of concentrations as in mice infected with a human-derived nonvariant strain (GSS, Fukuoka-1). Other measures of virulence, including brain infectivity titers, incubation periods, and the accumulation of PrPres in spleens and brains, were also comparable in both experimental models.


Infected and Source Flocks

As of November 30, 2005 there were 95 scrapie infected and source flocks (Figure 3). There were 2 new infected and source flocks reported in November (Figure 4) with a total of 12 flocks reported for FY 2006 (Figure 5). The total infected and source flocks that have been released in FY 2006 are 16 (Figure 6), with 9 flocks released in November. The ratio of infected and source flocks released to newly infected and source flocks for FY 2006 = 1.33 : 1. In addition, as of November 30, 2005, 67 scrapie cases have been confirmed and reported by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), of which 7 were RSSS cases (Figure 7). This includes 57 newly confirmed cases in November 2005 (Figure 8). Fifteen cases of scrapie in goats have been reported since 1990 (Figure 9). The last goat case was reported in May 2005. New infected flocks, source flocks, and flocks released for FY 2006 are depicted in Figure 10. New infected and source statuses from 1997 to 2006 are depicted in Chart 3.

Regulatory Scrapie Slaughter Surveillance (RSSS) +

RSSS started April 1, 2003. It is targeted slaughter surveillance program which is designed to identify infected flocks for clean-up. Samples have been collected from 67,840 sheep since April 1, 2003, of which results have been reported for 64,034. Samples have been submitted from 81 plants. There have been 215 NVSL confirmed positive sheep since the beginning of RSSS. In FY 2006 samples have been collected from 5,339 sheep and there have been 7 NVSL confirmed positive cases through November 2005. Face colors of FY 2006 confirmed positives are 6 black and 1 mottled. During November 2005, 2,429* animals were sampled and test results were reported on 3088 samples. Five confirmed positives were reported by NVSL in November 2005. Cumulative regional sample collection numbers are shown in Figure 11 and are based upon the State in which the animal was tagged. The number of RSSS animals collected with traceable identification for FY 2005 by month, by region where collected is shown in Figure 12. A retrospective 6 month rolling average of the % positive tested black-faced sheep sampled at slaughter is shown in Figure 13.


full text;

Published online before print October 20, 2005

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 10.1073/pnas.0502296102 Medical Sciences

A newly identified type of scrapie agent can naturally infect sheep with resistant PrP genotypes

( sheep prion transgenic mice )

Annick Le Dur *, Vincent Béringue *, Olivier Andréoletti , Fabienne Reine *, Thanh Lan Laï *, Thierry Baron , Bjørn Bratberg ¶, Jean-Luc Vilotte , Pierre Sarradin **, Sylvie L. Benestad ¶, and Hubert Laude * *Virologie Immunologie Moléculaires and Génétique Biochimique et Cytogénétique, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France; Unité Mixte de Recherche, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique-Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, Interactions Hôte Agent Pathogène, 31066 Toulouse, France; Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments, Unité Agents Transmissibles Non Conventionnels, 69364 Lyon, France; **Pathologie Infectieuse et Immunologie, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 37380 Nouzilly, France; and ¶Department of Pathology, National Veterinary Institute, 0033 Oslo, Norway

Edited by Stanley B. Prusiner, University of California, San Francisco, CA, and approved September 12, 2005 (received for review March 21, 2005)

Scrapie in small ruminants belongs to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, a family of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals and can transmit within and between species by ingestion or inoculation. Conversion of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP), normal cellular PrP (PrPc), into a misfolded form, abnormal PrP (PrPSc), plays a key role in TSE transmission and pathogenesis. The intensified surveillance of scrapie in the European Union, together with the improvement of PrPSc detection techniques, has led to the discovery of a growing number of so-called atypical scrapie cases. These include clinical Nor98 cases first identified in Norwegian sheep on the basis of unusual pathological and PrPSc molecular features and "cases" that produced discordant responses in the rapid tests currently applied to the large-scale random screening of slaughtered or fallen animals. Worryingly, a substantial proportion of such cases involved sheep with PrP genotypes known until now to confer natural resistance to conventional scrapie. Here we report that both Nor98 and discordant cases, including three sheep homozygous for the resistant PrPARR allele (A136R154R171), efficiently transmitted the disease to transgenic mice expressing ovine PrP, and that they shared unique biological and biochemical features upon propagation in mice. These observations support the view that a truly infectious TSE agent, unrecognized until recently, infects sheep and goat flocks and may have important implications in terms of scrapie control and public health.


Author contributions: H.L. designed research; A.L.D., V.B., O.A., F.R., T.L.L., J.-L.V., and H.L. performed research; T.B., B.B., P.S., and S.L.B. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; V.B., O.A., and H.L. analyzed data; and H.L. wrote the paper.

A.L.D. and V.B. contributed equally to this work.

To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Hubert Laude, E-mail:



A The Present Position with respect to Scrapie A] The Problem

Scrapie is a natural disease of sheep and goats. It is a slow and inexorably progressive degenerative disorder of the nervous system and it ia fatal. It is enzootic in the United Kingdom but not in all countries.

The field problem has been reviewed by a MAFF working group (ARC 35/77). It is difficult to assess the incidence in Britain for a variety of reasons but the disease causes serious financial loss; it is estimated that it cost Swaledale breeders alone $l.7 M during the five years 1971-1975. A further inestimable loss arises from the closure of certain export markets, in particular those of the United States, to British sheep.

It is clear that scrapie in sheep is important commercially and for that reason alone effective measures to control it should be devised as quickly as possible.

Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)" The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human dementias"

Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer grievously.





[Docket No. 03-025IFA] FSIS Prohibition of the Use of Specified Risk Materials for Human Food and Requirement for the Disposition of Non-Ambulatory Disabled Cattle

03-025IFA 03-025IFA-2 Terry S. Singeltary

ALL animals for human/animal consumption must be tested for TSE.

ALL human TSEs must be made reportable Nationally and Internationally, OF ALL AGES...TSS

Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518

----- Original Message ----- From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. To: Sent: Tuesday, December 06, 2005 9:57 PM Subject: HUMAN and ANIMAL TSE Classifications i.e. mad cow disease and the UKBSEnvCJD only theory

----- Original Message ----- From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. To: Sent: Thursday, December 22, 2005 3:01 PM Subject: HUMAN and ANIMAL TSE Classifications i.e. mad cow disease and the UKBSEnvCJD only theory

----- Original Message ----- From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." To: Cc: Sent: Tuesday, January 17, 2006 2:35 PM Subject: HUMAN and ANIMAL TSE Classifications i.e. mad cow disease UKBSEnvCJD only ? (JAMA Feedback Form)

----- Original Message ----- From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. To: Cc: Sent: Tuesday, January 31, 2006 2:58 PM Subject: HUMAN and ANIMAL TSE Classifications i.e. mad cow

I wish to submit the following to PNAS for publication. NO other authors except me. thank you. ///

HUMAN and ANIMAL TSE Classifications i.e. mad cow disease and the UKBSEnvCJD only theory

----- Original Message ----- From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." To: Sent: Thursday, August 02, 2007 12:22 PM Subject: HUMAN and ANIMAL TSE Classifications i.e. mad cow disease and the UKBSEnvCJD only theory

----- Original Message ----- From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. To: Cc: Sent: Sunday, April 02, 2006 2:50 PM Subject: HUMAN and ANIMAL TSE Classifications i.e. mad cow disease and the UKBSEnvCJD only theory.doc

----- Original Message ----- From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. To: Sent: Tuesday, October 03, 2006 11:02 AM Subject: HUMAN and ANIMAL TSE Classifications i.e. mad cow disease and the UKBSEnvCJD only theory.doc

----- Original Message ----- From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." To: Cc: Sent: Wednesday, December 21, 2005 10:52 PM Subject: HUMAN and ANIMAL TSE Classifications i.e. mad cow disease the UKBSEnvCJD theory (JAMA Feedback Form)

can't say i am not persistent ;-). ...end...June 2008...TSS

Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518

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